RE: redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 38

From: Sistem Müdür Yardımcısı (nyilmaz_at_iski.gov.tr)
Date: 06/24/04

  • Next message: Rodolfo J. Paiz: "RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation"
    Date: Thu, 24 Jun 2004 08:05:07 +0300
    To: <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    
    

     

    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of redhat-list-request@redhat.com
    Sent: Wednesday, June 23, 2004 19:01
    To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    Subject: redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 38

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    Today's Topics:

       1. RE: redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 37
          (Nas?r Y?lmaz (Sistem M?d?r Yard?mc?s?))
       2. Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP (Khan)
       3. Upload and Download enteries in access_log (Muhammad Rizwan Khan)
       4. Re: Upload and Download enteries in access_log
          (Manuel Arostegui Ramirez)
       5. Re: RH9: discrepancy between free disk space info: df vs. du,
          why? (Ed Wilts)
       6. Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Mike Burger)
       7. Re: Upload and Download enteries in access_log (Jeff)
       8. RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Otto Haliburton)
       9. RE: Windows Services for Unix 3.5 (Paul Crossman)
      10. Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Ed Wilts)
      11. Building Device Driver (glenn)
      12. RE: Building Device Driver (Jay Berryman)
      13. Re: Please help as soon as possible (Rick Forrister)
      14. Re: Please help as soon as possible (MKlinke)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Message: 1
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 11:55:17 +0300
    From: Nas?r Y?lmaz (Sistem M?d?r Yard?mc?s?) <nyilmaz@iski.gov.tr>
    Subject: RE: redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 37
    To: <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <A9057E52116CEA49BD6D37932141161E1D1FAC@mail.iski.local>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-9"

    Hi Folks Anybody used wap gateway on Redhat ?
    I Urgently need to help

    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of redhat-list-request@redhat.com
    Sent: Wednesday, June 23, 2004 11:50
    To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    Subject: redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 37

    Send redhat-list mailing list submissions to
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    When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific than "Re: Contents of redhat-list digest..."

    Today's Topics:

       1. Re: up2date (Jurvis LaSalle)
       2. RE: up2date (Ryan Golhar)
       3. Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Jeff)
       4. Re: up2date (Jurvis LaSalle)
       5. RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Nathaniel Hall)
       6. RE: up2date (Ryan Golhar)
       7. RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Otto Haliburton)
       8. sk_buff structure (rahul b jain cs student)
       9. Re: sk_buff structure (Jason Dixon)
      10. Re: sk_buff structure (Manuel Arostegui Ramirez)
      11. Re: sk_buff structure (rahul b jain cs student)
      12. Re: dhcpd server - Can't bind to dhcp address. Address
          already in use (Rodolfo J. Paiz)
      13. how to get more verbose messages (Reuben D. Budiardja)
      14. Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
          Accelerator (Amauri Vidal Gon?alves)
      15. Windows Services for Unix 3.5 (David Saldana)
      16. Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation (Mark Dadgar)
      17. Re: Apt or yum sources for fresh software (Eucke Warren)
      18. kernel 2.6.7 & RH9 (Alex)
      19. Re: Apt or yum sources for fresh software (Michael Schwendt)
      20. Re: Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
          Accelerator (Michael Schwendt)
      21. Re: Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
          Accelerator (Pete Nesbitt)
      22. Novell Netware 4.11 and RHL print server? (Budi Febrianto)
      23. RH9: discrepancy between free disk space info: df vs. du,
          why? (Rade Trimceski)
      24. Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP (Khan)
      25. Please help as soon as possible (Nitin)
      26. Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP (Sasa Stupar)
      27. Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP (Khan)
      28. Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP (Sasa Stupar)
      29. Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
          (Manuel Arostegui Ramirez)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Message: 1
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 12:43:07 -0400
    From: Jurvis LaSalle <lasalle@bard.edu>
    Subject: Re: up2date
    To: golharam@umdnj.edu, General Red Hat Linux discussion list
            <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <3D146A24-C46B-11D8-B1E5-0003931935FC@bard.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed

    On Jun 21, 2004, at 9:07 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:

    > But, isn't that the point of up2date --nox, to not require X?
    >
    > -----Original Message-----
    > From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    > [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Jurvis LaSalle
    > Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 6:21 PM
    > To: golharam@umdnj.edu; General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    > Subject: Re: up2date
    >
    >
    >
    > On Jun 21, 2004, at 5:56 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:
    >
    >> Here's an interesting note: If I don't have a X-Windows Server
    >> running locally (ReflectionX, etc), then up2date doesn't work even
    >> though I want to use it in command-line mode...
    >>
    >> Shouldn't it just function as expected without trying to establish an
    >> X connection?
    >>
    >>
    >> -----Original Message-----
    >> From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    >> [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Ryan Golhar
    >> Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 5:46 PM
    >> To: 'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'
    >> Subject: up2date
    >>
    >>
    >> Recently, I've been trying to run up2date remotely via a shell.
    >> Whenever
    >> I run up2date with or without and parameters, it just drops me back
    >> to the shell. I can't figure out why its not working the way its
    > supposed
    >> to. I did modify the config file for up2date to remove packages from
    >> the skipList. It was working previously, as I only noticed this
    >> problem recently...has anyone else seen this before?
    >>
    >> -----
    >> Ryan Golhar
    >> Computational Biologist
    >> The Informatics Institute at
    >> The University of Medicine & Dentistry of NJ
    >
    > up2date defaults to being an X11 app unless you use --nox (obligatory
    > 'man up2date' suggestion) . If you've got the bandwidth to use X, try
    > 'ssh -XC user@remotehost up2date'.
    >
    > hth,
    > Jurvis LaSalle
    >

    I have successfully tested this today.

    %ssh remotehost 'up2date-nox -u'

    this also worked

    %ssh remotehost 'up2date --nox -u'

    i was also able to switch the -u to --configure and do it all without X11. What exactly have tried? Just in case it matters, I've got
    up2date-4.2.16-1 on taroonU2.

    hth,
    Jurvis LaSalle

    ------------------------------

    Message: 2
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 12:49:56 -0400
    From: Ryan Golhar <golharam@umdnj.edu>
    Subject: RE: up2date
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <002f01c45878$f30298d0$9e00a8c0@GOLHARMOBILE1>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

    I'm using Putty on Windows 2000 to ssh to the remote machine. I have ReflectionX installed to act as my X server. If I don't have it running, up2date doesn't work, however if I have ReflectionX running in the background, up2date (and up2date-nox) works.

    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Jurvis LaSalle
    Sent: Tuesday, June 22, 2004 12:43 PM
    To: golharam@umdnj.edu; General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    Subject: Re: up2date

    On Jun 21, 2004, at 9:07 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:

    > But, isn't that the point of up2date --nox, to not require X?
    >
    > -----Original Message-----
    > From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    > [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Jurvis LaSalle
    > Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 6:21 PM
    > To: golharam@umdnj.edu; General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    > Subject: Re: up2date
    >
    >
    >
    > On Jun 21, 2004, at 5:56 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:
    >
    >> Here's an interesting note: If I don't have a X-Windows Server
    >> running locally (ReflectionX, etc), then up2date doesn't work even
    >> though I want to use it in command-line mode...
    >>
    >> Shouldn't it just function as expected without trying to establish an

    >> X connection?
    >>
    >>
    >> -----Original Message-----
    >> From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    >> [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Ryan Golhar
    >> Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 5:46 PM
    >> To: 'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'
    >> Subject: up2date
    >>
    >>
    >> Recently, I've been trying to run up2date remotely via a shell.
    >> Whenever I run up2date with or without and parameters, it just drops
    >> me back to the shell. I can't figure out why its not working the way

    >> its
    > supposed
    >> to. I did modify the config file for up2date to remove packages from

    >> the skipList. It was working previously, as I only noticed this
    >> problem recently...has anyone else seen this before?
    >>
    >> -----
    >> Ryan Golhar
    >> Computational Biologist
    >> The Informatics Institute at
    >> The University of Medicine & Dentistry of NJ
    >
    > up2date defaults to being an X11 app unless you use --nox (obligatory
    > 'man up2date' suggestion) . If you've got the bandwidth to use X, try

    > 'ssh -XC user@remotehost up2date'.
    >
    > hth,
    > Jurvis LaSalle
    >

    I have successfully tested this today.

    %ssh remotehost 'up2date-nox -u'

    this also worked

    %ssh remotehost 'up2date --nox -u'

    i was also able to switch the -u to --configure and do it all without X11. What exactly have tried? Just in case it matters, I've got
    up2date-4.2.16-1 on taroonU2.

    hth,
    Jurvis LaSalle

    --
    redhat-list mailing list
    unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=unsubscribe
    https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    ------------------------------
    Message: 3
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 18:40:43 +0100
    From: Jeff <jeff@virgin.net>
    Subject: Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <2004622184043.869561@beast>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
    On Mon, 21 Jun 2004 22:51:43 -0400, Alejandro Calbazana wrote:
    > Hello,
    >
    >
    > I was looking for some recommendations on using a standalone RH
    > machine as a firewall.  Right now, I have an older Linksys router
    > which I use as a standalone router for my broadband connection.  I
    > was considering placing a firewall behind my router.  Other than
    > being overly paranoid, I'd like to do this b/c i like the logging
    > capability of iptables and iptables has much more flexibility as
    > far as rules go.  The Linksys router simply routes, forwards, and
    > does rudimentary logging.  My questions are:
    >
    > 1. Is the overkill from a home network?
    > 2. Should I just use my linux box as a router AND a firewall and
    > ditch the Linksys appliance all together?
    > 3. If there is room for both, how might the router allow traffic to
    > flow to the machine I designate as my firewall?
    >
    > Thanks,
    >
    >
    > Alejandro
    I found myself in a similar situation a few months ago, after waying up all the pro's and con's I sold my router on ebay and bought a PCI DSL card (and made money ;p). Obviously, this becomes a little more awkward if you're on cable/leased line - Im not sure what other hardware is available for these or if its supported under Linux.
    To replace the router I have an old P-II 350 with 256MB RAM and it works great - I have shorewall installed to protect my LAN, a mail server (w/spamassassin), a web server etc. 
    Depending on what you want the linux box to do then it might be worthwhile looking at some of the firewall distro's such as smoothwall, IPcop, etc
    HTH
    Jeff
    ------------------------------
    Message: 4
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 13:43:50 -0400
    From: Jurvis LaSalle <lasalle@bard.edu>
    Subject: Re: up2date
    To: golharam@umdnj.edu,	General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    	<redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <B8C47D72-C473-11D8-B1E5-0003931935FC@bard.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed
    On Jun 22, 2004, at 12:49 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:
    > I'm using Putty on Windows 2000 to ssh to the remote machine.  I have
    > ReflectionX installed to act as my X server.  If I don't have it
    > running, up2date doesn't work, however if I have ReflectionX running in
    > the background, up2date (and up2date-nox) works.
    >
    >
    >> I have successfully tested this today.
    >>
    >> %ssh remotehost 'up2date-nox -u'
    >>
    >> this also worked
    >>
    >> %ssh remotehost 'up2date --nox -u'
    >>
    >> i was also able to switch the -u to --configure and do it all without
    >> X11.  What exactly have tried?  Just in case it matters, I've got
    >> up2date-4.2.16-1 on taroonU2.
    >>
    >> hth,
    >> Jurvis LaSalle
    Ryan,
    	I was using Mac OS X.3 without X11 started.  Jumping over to the Win98 
    box with PuTTY I also encountered the same problems you described.  On 
    a hunch, I didn't load the profile I had saved with X11 forwarding 
    enabled but started a fresh login without it.  Sure enough, I was able 
    to use up2date-nox successfully.  Check and see if you have enabled X11 
    tunneling...
    hth,
    Jurvis
    ------------------------------
    Message: 5
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 12:53:08 -0500
    From: "Nathaniel Hall" <halln@otc.edu>
    Subject: RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <200406221753.i5MHrjBq014622@emh1.otc.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"
    -----Original Message-----
    >>From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    [mailto:redhat-list->>bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Alejandro Calbazana
    >>Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 9:52 PM
    >>To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    >>Subject: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    >>
    >>Hello,
    >>
    >>I was looking for some recommendations on using a standalone RH machine as
    >>a firewall.  Right now, I have an older Linksys router which I use as a
    >>standalone router for my broadband connection.  I was considering placing
    >>a firewall behind my router.  Other than being overly paranoid, I'd like
    >>to do this b/c i like the logging capability of iptables and iptables has
    >>much more flexibility as far as rules go.  The Linksys router simply
    >>routes, forwards, and does rudimentary logging.  My questions are:
    >>
    >>1. Is the overkill from a home network?
    What is wrong with being secure?
    >>2. Should I just use my linux box as a router AND a firewall and ditch the
    >>Linksys appliance all together?
    I would use the firewall on the outside and the Linksys on the inside if I
    did both, but I would probably only use the firewall.
    >>3. If there is room for both, how might the router allow traffic to flow
    >>to the machine I designate as my firewall?
    If you use both, the firewall will still route between its interfaces.  All
    of you machines on the internal side would use the firewall as the default
    gateway and the firewall would use the Linksys as its default gateway.  If
    you want to setup a web or e-mail server, you would have to tell the Linksys
    to route certain ports to different machines that host the services and make
    the area between the Linksys and the firewall a DMZ.
    >>Thanks,
    >>
    >>Alejandro
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Nathaniel Hall
    Intrusion Detection and Firewall Technician
    Ozarks Technical Community College -- Office of Computer Networking
    417-799-0552
    ------------------------------
    Message: 6
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 13:59:10 -0400
    From: Ryan Golhar <golharam@umdnj.edu>
    Subject: RE: up2date
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <003401c45882$9f07fc70$9e00a8c0@GOLHARMOBILE1>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
    That could be it.  I have a custom built version of Putty (I've called
    ssh) that automatically enables X11 forwarding...
    I'll try disabling it and see what happens.  Thanks
    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Jurvis LaSalle
    Sent: Tuesday, June 22, 2004 1:44 PM
    To: golharam@umdnj.edu; General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    Subject: Re: up2date
    On Jun 22, 2004, at 12:49 PM, Ryan Golhar wrote:
    > I'm using Putty on Windows 2000 to ssh to the remote machine.  I have 
    > ReflectionX installed to act as my X server.  If I don't have it 
    > running, up2date doesn't work, however if I have ReflectionX running 
    > in the background, up2date (and up2date-nox) works.
    >
    >
    >> I have successfully tested this today.
    >>
    >> %ssh remotehost 'up2date-nox -u'
    >>
    >> this also worked
    >>
    >> %ssh remotehost 'up2date --nox -u'
    >>
    >> i was also able to switch the -u to --configure and do it all without
    >> X11.  What exactly have tried?  Just in case it matters, I've got 
    >> up2date-4.2.16-1 on taroonU2.
    >>
    >> hth,
    >> Jurvis LaSalle
    Ryan,
    	I was using Mac OS X.3 without X11 started.  Jumping over to the
    Win98 
    box with PuTTY I also encountered the same problems you described.  On 
    a hunch, I didn't load the profile I had saved with X11 forwarding 
    enabled but started a fresh login without it.  Sure enough, I was able 
    to use up2date-nox successfully.  Check and see if you have enabled X11 
    tunneling...
    hth,
    Jurvis
    -- 
    redhat-list mailing list
    unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=unsubscribe
    https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    ------------------------------
    Message: 7
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 13:48:24 -0500
    From: "Otto Haliburton" <ottohaliburton@comcast.net>
    Subject: RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <002901c45889$7f90b3d0$4601a8c0@C515816A>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="US-ASCII"
    > -----Original Message-----
    > From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com [mailto:redhat-list-
    > bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Nathaniel Hall
    > Sent: Tuesday, June 22, 2004 12:53 PM
    > To: 'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'
    > Subject: RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    > 
    > -----Original Message-----
    > >>From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    > [mailto:redhat-list->>bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Alejandro Calbazana
    > >>Sent: Monday, June 21, 2004 9:52 PM
    > >>To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    > >>Subject: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    > >>
    > >>Hello,
    > >>
    > >>I was looking for some recommendations on using a standalone RH machine
    > as
    > >>a firewall.  Right now, I have an older Linksys router which I use as a
    > >>standalone router for my broadband connection.  I was considering
    > placing
    > >>a firewall behind my router.  Other than being overly paranoid, I'd like
    > >>to do this b/c i like the logging capability of iptables and iptables
    > has
    > >>much more flexibility as far as rules go.  The Linksys router simply
    > >>routes, forwards, and does rudimentary logging.  My questions are:
    > >>
    > >>1. Is the overkill from a home network?
    > 
    > What is wrong with being secure?
    > 
    > >>2. Should I just use my linux box as a router AND a firewall and ditch
    > the
    > >>Linksys appliance all together?
    > 
    > I would use the firewall on the outside and the Linksys on the inside if I
    > did both, but I would probably only use the firewall.
    > 
    > >>3. If there is room for both, how might the router allow traffic to flow
    > >>to the machine I designate as my firewall?
    > 
    > If you use both, the firewall will still route between its interfaces.
    > All
    > of you machines on the internal side would use the firewall as the default
    > gateway and the firewall would use the Linksys as its default gateway.  If
    > you want to setup a web or e-mail server, you would have to tell the
    > Linksys
    > to route certain ports to different machines that host the services and
    > make
    > the area between the Linksys and the firewall a DMZ.
    > 
    > >>Thanks,
    > >>
    > >>Alejandro
    Just a thought, IMHO if you use a inksys router with nat then you do have a
    firewall, in fact a very effective hardware firewall.  I don't think you can
    get better performance and security at the same time.  I would put all my
    computers behind the linksys router and forget it.
    ------------------------------
    Message: 8
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 16:25:04 -0400 (EDT)
    From: rahul b jain cs student <rbj2@oak.njit.edu>
    Subject: sk_buff structure
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <Pine.GSO.4.58.0406221621100.10319@chrome.njit.edu>
    Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
    Hi,
    I am trying to modify the kernel networking code and have a question
    regarding the sk_buff structure which is used to store the details of a
    packet.
    In this structure there are pointers called headroom, data, tailroom and
    end. Does anyone know what these are used for. Or can anyone point me to a
    good explanation for these fields.
    I wanted to know how exactly they are populated ? Whether the headroom
    contains the different headers ? What does the tailroom contain ?
    Thanks,
    Rahul.
    ------------------------------
    Message: 9
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 16:28:19 -0400
    From: Jason Dixon <jason@dixongroup.net>
    Subject: Re: sk_buff structure
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <B2E091EC-C48A-11D8-A44C-000A95C548D0@dixongroup.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed
    On Jun 22, 2004, at 4:25 PM, rahul b jain cs student wrote:
    > I am trying to modify the kernel networking code and have a question
    > regarding the sk_buff structure which is used to store the details of a
    > packet.
    > In this structure there are pointers called headroom, data, tailroom 
    > and
    > end. Does anyone know what these are used for. Or can anyone point me 
    > to a
    > good explanation for these fields.
    >
    > I wanted to know how exactly they are populated ? Whether the headroom
    > contains the different headers ? What does the tailroom contain ?
    Granted, there might be kernel developers on this list, but wouldn't 
    this question be more appropriate for the Linux kernel mailing list(s)?
    --
    Jason Dixon, RHCE
    DixonGroup Consulting
    http://www.dixongroup.net
    ------------------------------
    Message: 10
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 22:38:11 +0200 (CEST)
    From: Manuel Arostegui Ramirez <manuaroste@yahoo.es>
    Subject: Re: sk_buff structure
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040622203811.35088.qmail@web52408.mail.yahoo.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
    --- rahul b jain cs student <rbj2@oak.njit.edu>
    escribió: > Hi,
    > 
    > I am trying to modify the kernel networking code and
    > have a question
    > regarding the sk_buff structure which is used to
    > store the details of a
    > packet.
    > In this structure there are pointers called
    > headroom, data, tailroom and
    > end. Does anyone know what these are used for. Or
    > can anyone point me to a
    > good explanation for these fields.
    > 
    > I wanted to know how exactly they are populated ?
    > Whether the headroom
    > contains the different headers ? What does the
    > tailroom contain ?
    > 
    > Thanks,
    > Rahul.
    linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
    Try to email there, that is the mailing list for
    kernel developers.
    Cheers
    =====
    --
    Manuel Aróstegui Linux user 200896
    http://manuel.todo-linux.com
    		
    ______________________________________________
    Renovamos el Correo Yahoo!: ¡100 MB GRATIS!
    Nuevos servicios, más seguridad
    http://correo.yahoo.es
    ------------------------------
    Message: 11
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 16:49:10 -0400 (EDT)
    From: rahul b jain cs student <rbj2@oak.njit.edu>
    Subject: Re: sk_buff structure
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <Pine.GSO.4.58.0406221648370.10319@chrome.njit.edu>
    Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=iso-8859-1
    thanks for the pointer.
    Rahul.
    On Tue, 22 Jun 2004, [iso-8859-1] Manuel Arostegui Ramirez wrote:
    > --- rahul b jain cs student <rbj2@oak.njit.edu>
    > escribió: > Hi,
    > >
    > > I am trying to modify the kernel networking code and
    > > have a question
    > > regarding the sk_buff structure which is used to
    > > store the details of a
    > > packet.
    > > In this structure there are pointers called
    > > headroom, data, tailroom and
    > > end. Does anyone know what these are used for. Or
    > > can anyone point me to a
    > > good explanation for these fields.
    > >
    > > I wanted to know how exactly they are populated ?
    > > Whether the headroom
    > > contains the different headers ? What does the
    > > tailroom contain ?
    > >
    > > Thanks,
    > > Rahul.
    >
    > linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
    > Try to email there, that is the mailing list for
    > kernel developers.
    >
    > Cheers
    >
    > =====
    > --
    >
    > Manuel Aróstegui Linux user 200896
    > http://manuel.todo-linux.com
    >
    >
    >
    > ______________________________________________
    > Renovamos el Correo Yahoo!: ¡100 MB GRATIS!
    > Nuevos servicios, más seguridad
    > http://correo.yahoo.es
    >
    >
    > --
    > redhat-list mailing list
    > unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=unsubscribe
    > https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    >
    ------------------------------
    Message: 12
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 15:19:53 -0600
    From: "Rodolfo J. Paiz" <rpaiz@simpaticus.com>
    Subject: Re: dhcpd server - Can't bind to dhcp address. Address
    	already in use
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <6.1.1.1.0.20040622151228.03b256c0@mail.simpaticus.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed
    At 08:25 AM 6/20/2004, Grey Kuyper wrote:
    >You are, of course correct. The subnet line says:
    >    range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200
    >
    >In any event. The boot attempt just prior to the subnet declaration being 
    >commented out behaved identically to the previous attempts and the 
    >behaviour did not change after commenting the subnet declaration out. 
    >Since changing the dhcpd.conf has no effect on the outcome I would guess 
    >the problem is before the dhcpd.conf
    You're welcome to guess. However, if you actually want help in diagnosing 
    the issue, you're going to have to cooperate more. Notice that you haven't 
    answered most (any?) of my questions: entire dhcpd.conf, contents of 
    /etc/sysconfig/dhcpd, results of "netstat -leanp", output in the logs at 
    /var/log/messages... nothing. Add "chkconfig --list | grep :on" to that 
    list, too. You didn't even touch on a key issue: where you got the package. 
    A tarball from ISC is going to behave differently from an RPM install by 
    Red Hat. And until and unless you give the rest of the world something to 
    chew on, then guessing is all that can be done.
    <growl> I'm not all that shabby at getting things to work. However, I am 
    not telepathic, nor do I have a secret access to your system, nor can I 
    guess from nearly zero data what the problem might be. If you can't provide 
    details and data, I cannot help you... and won't waste time trying. </growl>
    Good luck,
    > >That is what is so weird. This is an "out of the box install". Nothing
    > >fancy, nothing strange. Works on the laptop, fails on the server.
    P.S. It cannot *possibly* work out of the box on an RHL or FC system, since 
    those packages don't provide a dhcpd.conf at all. Always pissed me off, 
    that. But you are providing grossly incomplete, sometimes contradictory, 
    and even at times bluntly impossible information. Can you do better?
    -- 
    Rodolfo J. Paiz
    rpaiz@simpaticus.com
    http://www.simpaticus.com
    ------------------------------
    Message: 13
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 17:24:36 -0400
    From: "Reuben D. Budiardja" <techlist@voyager.phys.utk.edu>
    Subject: how to get more verbose messages
    To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    Message-ID: <200406221724.36402.techlist@voyager.phys.utk.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain;  charset="us-ascii"
    Hi all,
    I am having problem with server locks up during heavy rsync. I am trying to 
    rsync abou 40GB of data (/home directory from some remote machine), and this 
    is the 3 third times in a day the server just suddenly locks up in the middle 
    of rsync. Only cold reboot work. The server run software RAID 5.
    So I'm wondering if there's a way of getting more verbose messages of what's 
    happening with the machine. 
    I know the possibilities are flaky hardware, but there's nothing in 
    /var/log/messages when this happened. I'm planning on running memtest86 on 
    it, but other than that, I would appreciate any suggestion anyone can give to 
    start troubleshooting this.
    Thanks in advance for any help.
    RDB
    -- 
    Reuben D. Budiardja
    Department of Physics and Astronomy
    The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
    ---------------------------------------------------------
    "To be a nemesis, you have to actively try to destroy 
    something, don't you? Really, I'm not out to destroy 
    Microsoft. That will just be a completely unintentional 
    side effect."
                     - Linus Torvalds -
    ------------------------------
    Message: 14
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 18:32:40 -0300
    From: Amauri Vidal Gon?alves <avgonc@attglobal.net>
    Subject: Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
    	Accelerator
    To: <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <002f01c458a0$738c4240$07e0fea9@ibm82aa3yz>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"
    Hi,
    I just installed RedHat 9.0 and I am not being able to hear any music CD using CD Player under Sound and Video.
    I used Sound Card Detection under system Settings and when pressing Play Test Sound I can head the test sound stereo load and clear.
    However, when starting CD Player, it looks like it is playing the CD but no sound is heard at all.
    Any config problem??
    Thanks amauri
    ------------------------------
    Message: 15
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 14:44:48 -0700
    From: "David Saldana" <dsaldana@wischip.com>
    Subject: Windows Services for Unix 3.5
    To: "General Red Hat Linux discussion list" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <2B7F5231967E7C49A316F30F4205B0AD72506A@mail1.wis.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"
    Hi All,    
     
                I have installed Windows services for Unix in My Windows 3k
    server and I want it to serve as a NIS  server but when I try  to point
    the Linux machine to use the windows NIS server it said it can not
    contact the server, I have check the configuration in windows and
    everything seems to be fine and all the processes are running so I don't
    know if I am missing something in the Linux side. Does anybody know what
    needs to be done to make this work?
     
    Thanks
     
    David
    ------------------------------
    Message: 16
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 15:30:06 -0700
    From: Mark Dadgar <mark@pdc-racing.net>
    Subject: Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <B63BE02B-C49B-11D8-9764-000A95DA10EE@pdc-racing.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed
    On Jun 22, 2004, at 11:48 AM, Otto Haliburton wrote:
    > Just a thought, IMHO if you use a inksys router with nat then you do 
    > have a
    > firewall, in fact a very effective hardware firewall.  I don't think 
    > you can
    > get better performance and security at the same time.  I would put all 
    > my
    > computers behind the linksys router and forget it.
    I agree.  You've got a purpose-built appliance device instead of a 
    general-use OS with all of it's myriad exploits.
    Just run the hardware firewall and forget about it.
    - Mark
    -----
    mark@pdc-racing.net
    ------------------------------
    Message: 17
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 16:59:36 -0700
    From: "Eucke Warren" <euckew@sierraelectronics.com>
    Subject: Re: Apt or yum sources for fresh software
    To: "General Red Hat Linux discussion list" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <00c601c458b4$fa8c1ae0$3f01a8c0@Eucke>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"
    ----- Original Message ----- 
    From: <biznatch@sctelcom.net>
    To: <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Sent: Tuesday, June 22, 2004 7:22 AM
    Subject: Apt or yum sources for fresh software
    > Can someone point me in the right direction...
    > 
    > I'm looking for an apt or yum source to freshen up my RedHat 9 install
    > with things like Samba 3.0 and Kernel 2.6.
    > 
    > I tried using the Fedora sources, but it "dosent go". Any help is
    > appericated. Thanks.
    http://www.fedoralegacy.org
    Good Luck!
    -Eucke
    ------------------------------
    Message: 18
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 03:56:39 +0300
    From: "Alex" <linux@hostingcenter.ro>
    Subject: kernel 2.6.7 & RH9
    To: "RedHat List" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <003401c458bc$f12f2070$05fea8c0@admin>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"
    Every time I try to compile kernel 2.6.7 (vanilla sources) on rh9 I get
    segmentation fault.
    Apparently it doesn't break every time in the same place, but the error is
    the same.
    The messages I get:
    -----
    In file included from include/linux/timex.h:186,
                     from include/linux/sched.h:11,
                     from include/linux/module.h:10,
                     from drivers/net/e100.c:142:
    include/linux/time.h: In function `jiffies_to_timeval':
    include/linux/time.h:280: internal error: Segmentation fault
    Please submit a full bug report,
    with preprocessed source if appropriate.
    See <URL:http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/> for instructions.
    make[2]: *** [drivers/net/e100.o] Error 1
    make[1]: *** [drivers/net] Error 2
    make: *** [drivers] Error 2
    -----
    after make mrproper and loadin the same .config I get:
      CC      fs/fat/fatfs_syms.o
    In file included from include/linux/timex.h:186,
                     from include/linux/sched.h:11,
                     from include/linux/module.h:10,
                     from fs/fat/fatfs_syms.c:8:
    include/linux/time.h: In function `timespec_to_jiffies':
    include/linux/time.h:223: internal error: Segmentation fault
    Please submit a full bug report,
    with preprocessed source if appropriate.
    See <URL:http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/> for instructions.
    make[2]: *** [fs/fat/fatfs_syms.o] Error 1
    make[1]: *** [fs/fat] Error 2
    make: *** [fs] Error 2
    Any clues?
    Thanks!
    Alex Iruc
    -- 
    This message has been scanned for viruses and
    dangerous content, and is believed to be clean.
    ------------------------------
    Message: 19
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 04:17:29 +0200
    From: Michael Schwendt <fedora@wir-sind-cool.org>
    Subject: Re: Apt or yum sources for fresh software
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623041729.0325dd8e.fedora@wir-sind-cool.org>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
    On Tue, 22 Jun 2004 16:59:36 -0700, Eucke Warren wrote:
    > > Can someone point me in the right direction...
    > > 
    > > I'm looking for an apt or yum source to freshen up my RedHat 9 install
    > > with things like Samba 3.0 and Kernel 2.6.
    > > 
    > > I tried using the Fedora sources, but it "dosent go". Any help is
    > > appericated. Thanks.
    > 
    > http://www.fedoralegacy.org
    Err, no. 
    The Fedora Legacy project keeps old releases of Red Hat Linux [and in the
    future, Fedora Core] alive with critical security/bug fixes. But they do
    not plan or develop major features upgrades, such as pushing RHL9 to Samba
    3.x or Kernel 2.6.
    A regular distribution upgrade to Fedora Core 2 would give you such software.
    ------------------------------
    Message: 20
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 04:22:30 +0200
    From: Michael Schwendt <fedora@wir-sind-cool.org>
    Subject: Re: Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
    	Accelerator
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623042230.531cd748.fedora@wir-sind-cool.org>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
    On Tue, 22 Jun 2004 18:32:40 -0300, Amauri Vidal Gonçalves wrote:
    > Hi,
    > I just installed RedHat 9.0 and I am not being able to hear any music CD using CD Player under Sound and Video.
    > 
    > I used Sound Card Detection under system Settings and when pressing Play Test Sound I can head the test sound stereo load and clear.
    > 
    > However, when starting CD Player, it looks like it is playing the CD but no sound is heard at all.
    > 
    > Any config problem??
    Could be a config problem indeed. Check out the various list archives, as
    there are two methods to play audio CDs. The most popular one requires an
    audio cable between your CD drive and your sound chipset. The other one
    requires special audio software which accesses the audio CD digitally.
    E.g. XMMS >= 1.2.8 includes a plug-in where you can choose between both
    analogue/digital playback. Since Red Hat Linux 9 doesn't include that
    version of the player, you may need to install the audio cable, or upgrade
    XMMS, or get a plug-in like xmms-cdread (e.g. the add-on for Red Hat Linux
    9 from http://fedora.us).
    ------------------------------
    Message: 21
    Date: Tue, 22 Jun 2004 19:00:36 -0700
    From: Pete Nesbitt <pete@linux1.ca>
    Subject: Re: Problems with cs46xx CrystalClear SoundFusion Audio
    	Accelerator
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <200406221900.36800.pete@linux1.ca>
    Content-Type: text/plain;  charset="iso-8859-1"
    On June 22, 2004 02:32 pm, Amauri Vidal Gonçalves wrote:
    > Hi,
    > I just installed RedHat 9.0 and I am not being able to hear any music CD
    > using CD Player under Sound and Video.
    >
    > I used Sound Card Detection under system Settings and when pressing Play
    > Test Sound I can head the test sound stereo load and clear.
    >
    > However, when starting CD Player, it looks like it is playing the CD but no
    > sound is heard at all.
    >
    > Any config problem??
    >
    > Thanks amauri
    Hi,
    I have had similar problems in KDE (are you using KDE or GNOME?). To fix it I 
    kill the arts daemon.
     'killall artsd' 
    Hope that helps.
    -- 
    Pete Nesbitt, rhce
    ------------------------------
    Message: 22
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 09:58:05 +0700
    From: "Budi Febrianto" <bfebrian@gmx.net>
    Subject: Novell Netware 4.11 and RHL print server?
    To: "General Red Hat Linux discussion list" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <001101c458cd$e95af9d0$810510ac@BUDIEDP>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"
    Hi,
    I have a friend that still using novell netware 4.11, installed IPX and IP
    protocol.
    He want to add a linux server as print server, using CUPS.
    And,
    He want to add some short of security feautres in cups. So, like department
    A users can only print to printers in department A, and so on.
    I know that SAMBA can combine the windows logon with linux logon, but what
    about novell?
    ------------------------------
    Message: 23
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 02:08:55 -0400
    From: Rade Trimceski <rtrimces@mtu.edu>
    Subject: RH9: discrepancy between free disk space info: df vs. du,
    	why?
    To: "redhat (list)" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <1087970935.2246.64.camel@btdgrad-pc4.mtu.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain
    Hello all!
    I'm running RH9 on a Sony Vaio laptop. I use ext3 for file system and
    2.6.7 kernel. I'm having this puzzling problem with my free disk space. 
    I run java based simulations which can generate pretty big files (900MB
    ~ 1.2GB). Lets say that I reboot the machine, using df -h I see that I
    have 1.4GB free disk space, and I leave it running for 4 days. In the
    course of 4 days I create and delete about 40 to 70 files. After
    deleting all the simulation related files (after 4 days of uptime) df-h
    reports only about 123MB free disk space. However if I run du on / I can
    deduce that the free space is indeed 1.4GB. If I reboot the machine df
    -h reports 1.4GB.
    My qeustion to you: what causes the discrepancy between what df and du
    report and how can I fix this without reboot? If I look at the df output
    where does my free disk space go when I delete all the files?
    I've tried to run updatedb to no avail of fixing this. I've also checked
    if /var or /tmp and other dirs get bigger and no directory seems to
    account for the "lost disk space". I'm suspecting this has something to
    do with the journaling capability of ext3. Has anyone experienced
    anything similar to this?
    If people don't have an answer but they have an idea on which list I can
    get help please let me know :).
    Thanks 
    Rade
    ------------------------------
    Message: 24
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 09:21:53 +0200
    From: Khan <gmane@cis.u7.da.ru>
    Subject: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: redhat-list@redhat.com
    Message-ID: <cbbb2j$c11$1@sea.gmane.org>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; format=flowed
    Hello,
    I am total beginner to Linux and I'm trying to learn iptables basics. I 
    would like to learn how to close all ports but 80, 20, and that ports 22 
    and 10000 will be open only to my IP address.
    How can I do that.
    TNX!
    ------------------------------
    Message: 25
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 14:04:48 +0530
    From: "Nitin" <nitinmehta@kappa.net.in>
    Subject: Please help as soon as possible
    To: <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <003f01c458fc$f21d0ed0$150a0a0a@dba>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"
    Hi all,
    Its really urgent. Hope its easy for someone.
    I was looking for problem on my mail server and printed some mails out of it (of course for testing) with 'print'. By chance some of them were important messages, now, how do I mark them unread, so that they can be downloaded.
    Please help me as soon as possible.
    Thanks in advance
    ------------------------------
    Message: 26
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:29:11 +0200
    From: Sasa Stupar <sasa@stupar.homelinux.net>
    Subject: Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <40D93F57.1090607@stupar.homelinux.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
    Khan pravi:
    > Hello,
    > 
    > I am total beginner to Linux and I'm trying to learn iptables basics. I 
    > would like to learn how to close all ports but 80, 20, and that ports 22 
    > and 10000 will be open only to my IP address.
    > 
    > How can I do that.
    > 
    > TNX!
    > 
    > 
    Close all ports:
    iptables -P INPUT DROP
    Just create a chain named "myself":
    iptables -N myself
    iptables -A myself -m mac -s xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx --mac aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff -j 
    ACCEPT
    and then for each port, eg. port 80:
    iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp -s 0/0 -d $NET --dport 80 -j myself
    --Sasa
    ------------------------------
    Message: 27
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:37:12 +0200
    From: Khan <gmane@cis.u7.da.ru>
    Subject: Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <40D94138.8000509@cis.u7.da.ru>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; format=flowed
    Khan wrote:
    > Hello,
    > 
    > I am total beginner to Linux and I'm trying to learn iptables basics. I 
    > would like to learn how to close all ports but 80, 20, and that ports 22 
    > and 10000 will be open only to my IP address.
    OK,
    here is what I got so far:
    # Accept local (192.168.5.0/24) SSH traffic
    $IPT -A INPUT -m state -p tcp --dport 22 ! --state INVALID -s 
    192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A OUTPUT -m state -p tcp --sport 22 --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -d 
    192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    That will allow all 192.168.5.* addresses to access port 22. How Can I 
    have only:
    192.168.5.3
    and
    192.168.5.4
    to access my 22 port. Tutorial I used is from:
    http://linuxcourse.rutgers.edu/lessons/lecture9.html
    TNX
    ------------------------------
    Message: 28
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:39:30 +0200
    From: Sasa Stupar <sasa@stupar.homelinux.net>
    Subject: Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <40D941C2.4040308@stupar.homelinux.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
    Khan pravi:
    > Khan wrote:
    > 
    >> Hello,
    >>
    >> I am total beginner to Linux and I'm trying to learn iptables basics. 
    >> I would like to learn how to close all ports but 80, 20, and that 
    >> ports 22 and 10000 will be open only to my IP address.
    > 
    > 
    > OK,
    > 
    > here is what I got so far:
    > 
    > # Accept local (192.168.5.0/24) SSH traffic
    > $IPT -A INPUT -m state -p tcp --dport 22 ! --state INVALID -s 
    > 192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    > $IPT -A OUTPUT -m state -p tcp --sport 22 --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -d 
    > 192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    > 
    > That will allow all 192.168.5.* addresses to access port 22. How Can I 
    > have only:
    > 
    > 192.168.5.3
    > and
    > 192.168.5.4
    > 
    > to access my 22 port. Tutorial I used is from:
    > 
    > http://linuxcourse.rutgers.edu/lessons/lecture9.html
    > 
    > TNX
    > 
    > 
    Or maybe you should use GUI frontend called Firestarter which is very 
    easy to manipulate. http://firestarter.sourceforge.net
    ------------------------------
    Message: 29
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:50:00 +0200 (CEST)
    From: Manuel Arostegui Ramirez <manuaroste@yahoo.es>
    Subject: Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623085000.33530.qmail@web52405.mail.yahoo.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
    --- Khan <gmane@cis.u7.da.ru> escribió: > Hello,
    > 
    > I am total beginner to Linux and I'm trying to learn
    > iptables basics. I 
    > would like to learn how to close all ports but 80,
    > 20, and that ports 22 
    > and 10000 will be open only to my IP address.
    > 
    > How can I do that.
    > 
    > TNX!
    First of all, if you watn to reject all connection to
    all ports diferents from 80,20, 22 and 10000
    iptables -P INPUT DROP
    iptables -P OUTPUT DROP
    iptables -P FORWARD DROP
    This rules won't allow anybody from anywhere to
    connect to your machine, now, it's time to open
    80,20,22 and 10000 only for your ip, for example,
    231.45.134.23
    #This will allow 231.45.134.23 to connect ssh port
    (22)
    iptables -A INPUT -s 231.45.134.23 -p tcp --dport 22
    -j ACCEPT
    iptables -A OUTPUT -d 231.45.134.23 -p tcp --dport 22
    -j ACCEPT
    It's the same with the rest ports you want to be open
    only from your ip.
    Then you must close all privileges ports, 1:1024
    iptables -A INPUT -p tcp  --dport 1:1024
    iptables -A INPUT -p udp  --dport 1:1024
    Best regards
    =====
    --
    Manuel Aróstegui Linux user 200896
    http://manuel.todo-linux.com
    		
    ______________________________________________
    Renovamos el Correo Yahoo!: ¡100 MB GRATIS!
    Nuevos servicios, más seguridad
    http://correo.yahoo.es
    ------------------------------
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    End of redhat-list Digest, Vol 4, Issue 37
    ******************************************
    ------------------------------
    Message: 2
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 11:16:00 +0200
    From: Khan <gmane@cis.u7.da.ru>
    Subject: Re: Iptables: port 22 open only for my IP
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <40D94A50.3040103@cis.u7.da.ru>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; format=flowed
    What will be the best way to put one more Ip adrress to:
    # Accept local (192.168.5.0/24) SSH traffic
    $IPT -A INPUT -m state -p tcp --dport 22 ! --state INVALID -s 
    192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A OUTPUT -m state -p tcp --sport 22 --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -d 
    192.168.5.0/24 -j ACCEPT
    TNX
    ------------------------------
    Message: 3
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 14:46:18 +0600
    From: Muhammad Rizwan Khan <rizwan@nixpanel.com>
    Subject: Upload and Download enteries in access_log
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <200406231446.18684.rizwan@nixpanel.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain;  charset="us-ascii"
    Hello All!
    This is the access log file of my httpd, I want to know which enteries from 
    the folloing list represents uploads and which entry stands for downloads.
    I 'll be really thankfull to you, if you plz. send me example enteries for 
    upload and download.
    //access_log
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 2805
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 
    287
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_0.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 295
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_1.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 1350
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_2.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 3795
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Contact.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 5828
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Horizontal_bg.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 94
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /images/Vertical_bg.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 200 138
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_0.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_1.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_2.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /images/Contact.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_0.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_1.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_2.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Contact.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_0.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_1.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Construct_2.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /images/Contact.gif 
    HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    -- 
    Muhammad Rizwan Khan
    ------------------------------
    Message: 4
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 12:08:33 +0200 (CEST)
    From: Manuel Arostegui Ramirez <manuaroste@yahoo.es>
    Subject: Re: Upload and Download enteries in access_log
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623100833.20860.qmail@web52401.mail.yahoo.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
    --- Muhammad Rizwan Khan <rizwan@nixpanel.com>
    escribió: > 
    > Hello All!
    > 
    > This is the access log file of my httpd, I want to
    > know which enteries from 
    > the folloing list represents uploads and which entry
    > stands for downloads.
    > I 'll be really thankfull to you, if you plz. send
    > me example enteries for 
    > upload and download.
    > 
    > //access_log
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET /
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 2805
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 
    > 287
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_0.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 295
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_1.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 1350
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_2.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 3795
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Contact.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 5828
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Horizontal_bg.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 94
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Vertical_bg.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 200 138
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_0.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_1.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_2.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Contact.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:52 +0600] "GET /
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_0.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_1.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_2.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Contact.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET /
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_0.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_1.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Construct_2.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:53 +0600] "GET
    > /images/Contact.gif 
    > HTTP/1.1" 304 -
    > -- 
    > Muhammad Rizwan Khan
    An example downloading a .mpg file:
     [23/Jun/2004:12:06:02 +0200] "GET /ironmaiden.mpg
    HTTP/1.1" 200 2580484 "http://10.20.6.32/"
    "Mozilla/5.0 Galeon/1.2.7 (X11; Linux i686; U;)
    Gecko/20030131"
    I haven't got any upload example, i'm sorry.
    Cheers
    =====
    --
    Manuel Aróstegui Linux user 200896
    http://manuel.todo-linux.com
    		
    ______________________________________________
    Renovamos el Correo Yahoo!: ¡100 MB GRATIS!
    Nuevos servicios, más seguridad
    http://correo.yahoo.es
    ------------------------------
    Message: 5
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 06:36:55 -0500
    From: Ed Wilts <ewilts@ewilts.org>
    Subject: Re: RH9: discrepancy between free disk space info: df vs. du,
    	why?
    To: rtrimces@mtu.edu,	General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    	<redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623113655.GC19531@www.ewilts.org>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
    On Wed, Jun 23, 2004 at 02:08:55AM -0400, Rade Trimceski wrote:
    > I run java based simulations which can generate pretty big files (900MB
    > ~ 1.2GB). Lets say that I reboot the machine, using df -h I see that I
    > have 1.4GB free disk space, and I leave it running for 4 days. In the
    > course of 4 days I create and delete about 40 to 70 files. After
    > deleting all the simulation related files (after 4 days of uptime) df-h
    > reports only about 123MB free disk space. However if I run du on / I can
    > deduce that the free space is indeed 1.4GB. If I reboot the machine df
    > -h reports 1.4GB.
    > 
    > My qeustion to you: what causes the discrepancy between what df and du
    > report and how can I fix this without reboot? If I look at the df output
    > where does my free disk space go when I delete all the files?
    What typically causes this is open files.  If you delete an open file,
    it doesn't really get deleted until it gets closed.  du won't count it
    but df will.
    To show you the open files, use lsof:
    # lsof /
    In order to fix it, you will need to shut down the application that has
    the deleted open file or figure out how to tell the app to close it.
    -- 
    Ed Wilts, RHCE
    Mounds View, MN, USA
    mailto:ewilts@ewilts.org
    Member #1, Red Hat Community Ambassador Program
    ------------------------------
    Message: 6
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 07:19:14 -0500 (EST)
    From: Mike Burger <mburger@bubbanfriends.org>
    Subject: Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID:
    	<Pine.LNX.4.58.0406230718510.27515@burgers.bubbanfriends.org>
    Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
    On Tue, 22 Jun 2004, Mark Dadgar wrote:
    > On Jun 22, 2004, at 11:48 AM, Otto Haliburton wrote:
    > > Just a thought, IMHO if you use a inksys router with nat then you do 
    > > have a
    > > firewall, in fact a very effective hardware firewall.  I don't think 
    > > you can
    > > get better performance and security at the same time.  I would put all 
    > > my
    > > computers behind the linksys router and forget it.
    > 
    > I agree.  You've got a purpose-built appliance device instead of a 
    > general-use OS with all of it's myriad exploits.
    > 
    > Just run the hardware firewall and forget about it.
    Well, that really does depend on just what you want to do, and how in 
    depth you want your firewalling to be.
    -- 
    Mike Burger
    http://www.bubbanfriends.org
    Visit the Dog Pound II BBS
    telnet://dogpound2.citadel.org or http://dogpound2.citadel.org:2000
    To be notified of updates to the web site, visit 
    http://www.bubbanfriends.org/mailman/listinfo/site-update, or send a 
    message to:
    site-update-request@bubbanfriends.org
    with a message of: 
    subscribe
    ------------------------------
    Message: 7
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 14:11:18 +0100
    From: Jeff <jeff@virgin.net>
    Subject: Re: Upload and Download enteries in access_log
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <2004623141118.718392@beast>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
    On Wed, 23 Jun 2004 14:46:18 +0600, Muhammad Rizwan Khan wrote:
    >
    > Hello All!
    >
    >
    > This is the access log file of my httpd, I want to know which
    > enteries from the folloing list represents uploads and which entry
    > stands for downloads. I 'll be really thankfull to you, if you plz.
    > send me example enteries for upload and download.
    >
    > //access_log
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200
    > 2805 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    > /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 287
    > 192.168.0.47 - - [09/Jun/2004:19:44:49 +0600] "GET
    >**SNIP**
    I think the word GET is the key here ;p
    ------------------------------
    Message: 8
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 08:27:40 -0500
    From: "Otto Haliburton" <ottohaliburton@comcast.net>
    Subject: RE: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: "'General Red Hat Linux discussion list'" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <009501c45925$deacdff0$4601a8c0@C515816A>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"
    > -----Original Message-----
    > From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com [mailto:redhat-list-
    > bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of Mike Burger
    > Sent: Wednesday, June 23, 2004 7:19 AM
    > To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    > Subject: Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    > 
    > On Tue, 22 Jun 2004, Mark Dadgar wrote:
    > 
    > > On Jun 22, 2004, at 11:48 AM, Otto Haliburton wrote:
    > > > Just a thought, IMHO if you use a inksys router with nat then you do
    > > > have a
    > > > firewall, in fact a very effective hardware firewall.  I don't think
    > > > you can
    > > > get better performance and security at the same time.  I would put all
    > > > my
    > > > computers behind the linksys router and forget it.
    > >
    > > I agree.  You've got a purpose-built appliance device instead of a
    > > general-use OS with all of it's myriad exploits.
    > >
    > > Just run the hardware firewall and forget about it.
    > 
    > Well, that really does depend on just what you want to do, and how in
    > depth you want your firewalling to be.
    > --
    I'm not sure what you mean, but you can't get a better firewall than not
    projecting the ip of the internal computer to the outside world.  Remember
    'nat' there is no better or in depth firewalling.
    > Mike Burger
    > http://www.bubbanfriends.org
    > 
    > Visit the Dog Pound II BBS
    > telnet://dogpound2.citadel.org or http://dogpound2.citadel.org:2000
    > 
    > To be notified of updates to the web site, visit
    > http://www.bubbanfriends.org/mailman/listinfo/site-update, or send a
    > message to:
    > 
    > site-update-request@bubbanfriends.org
    > 
    > with a message of:
    > 
    > subscribe
    > 
    > 
    > --
    > redhat-list mailing list
    > unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=unsubscribe
    > https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    ------------------------------
    Message: 9
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 09:55:01 -0400
    From: "Paul Crossman" <pcrossma@orange.us>
    Subject: RE: Windows Services for Unix 3.5
    To: "General Red Hat Linux discussion list" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <E7D674F13365EB489DDE409C298124B5E523B9@valiant.orange.us>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"
    Is the windows box on a different network and are you broadcasting for
    the NIS server on the Linux box?
    If you are, it will never work.  If your NIS server is on a different
    subnet (i.e. outside the netmask), you'll never see it via a NIS
    broadcast.  If you haven't, try specifying the windows box explicitly
    and see if that works.
    BTW, how did you get Win3k 995 some odd years early?  How slow does it
    run on this primitive technology?  :)  Sorry...  Couldn't resist and I
    could have gone on for pages and pages with this.  :)
    Paul C.
    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com
    [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com] On Behalf Of David Saldana
    Sent: Tuesday, June 22, 2004 5:45 PM
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list
    Subject: Windows Services for Unix 3.5
    Hi All,    
     
                I have installed Windows services for Unix in My Windows 3k
    server and I want it to serve as a NIS  server but when I try  to point
    the Linux machine to use the windows NIS server it said it can not
    contact the server, I have check the configuration in windows and
    everything seems to be fine and all the processes are running so I don't
    know if I am missing something in the Linux side. Does anybody know what
    needs to be done to make this work?
     
    Thanks
     
    David
    -- 
    redhat-list mailing list
    unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=subscribe
    https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    ------------------------------
    Message: 10
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 09:12:22 -0500
    From: Ed Wilts <ewilts@ewilts.org>
    Subject: Re: Router/Firewall Recommendation
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623141222.GA23394@www.ewilts.org>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
    On Wed, Jun 23, 2004 at 08:27:40AM -0500, Otto Haliburton wrote:
    > I'm not sure what you mean, but you can't get a better firewall than not
    > projecting the ip of the internal computer to the outside world.  Remember
    > 'nat' there is no better or in depth firewalling.
    NAT will only protect you from inbound new connections.  It does
    absolutely nothing if you have a rampant application on your Windows box
    that opens a port to the outside world.
    Similarly, you can rely on tcpwrappers to control most inbound
    connections but outbound is still a free-for-all unless you add iptables
    to the mix.
    For the best security, a well designed and implemented iptables
    configuration will be better than a hardware firewall.  However, for
    those looking for "good enough" solutions that solve the most common
    attacks, a hardware firewall like a Linksys router/firewall box does the
    job fairly well.
    Personally, I use a Linksys router/firewall with some predetermined
    ports forwarded to my Linux system (none to my Windows systems) and add
    tcpwrappers to restrict which hosts are actually allowed to use that
    service.  For example, ssh makes it through the firewall but tcpwrappers
    restricts the incoming connections to my office subnet.
    Another important thing to note is the maintainability of the firewall.
    If my Linksys ever dies, I can throw in another one in no time flat with
    a fast trip to a local store.  If you use a  Linux system and have a
    hardware failure, you're in for a lot more work.
    -- 
    Ed Wilts, RHCE
    Mounds View, MN, USA
    mailto:ewilts@ewilts.org
    Member #1, Red Hat Community Ambassador Program
    ------------------------------
    Message: 11
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:16:53 -0600
    From: "glenn" <glenn@mail.txwes.edu>
    Subject: Building Device Driver
    To: "Red Hat List" <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <20040623151455.M60214@mail.txwes.edu>
    Content-Type: text/plain;	charset=iso-8859-1
    O Wise Ones - Say I want to create a device, /dev/arpd, with 
    major number 36 and minor number 8.  How is this done?  
    Thanks.   -Glenn.
    ------------------------------
    Message: 12
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:28:48 -0500
    From: Jay Berryman <jay.berryman@sitel.com>
    Subject: RE: Building Device Driver
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID:
    	<BAEDCDF29A58CF4D8E1A94B670EF428F01669856@omaha-mail-2.sitel.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain
    Man mknod will give you all the info you need to know.
    -----Original Message-----
    From: redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com [mailto:redhat-list-bounces@redhat.com]
    On Behalf Of glenn
    Sent: Wednesday, June 23, 2004 11:17 AM
    To: Red Hat List
    Subject: Building Device Driver
    O Wise Ones - Say I want to create a device, /dev/arpd, with 
    major number 36 and minor number 8.  How is this done?  
    Thanks.   -Glenn.
    -- 
    redhat-list mailing list
    unsubscribe mailto:redhat-list-request@redhat.com?subject=unsubscribe
    https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/redhat-list
    ------------------------------
    Message: 13
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 08:45:49 -0700
    From: Rick Forrister <RForrister@charter.net>
    Subject: Re: Please help as soon as possible
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <40D9A5AD.3060605@charter.net>
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed
    Nitin wrote:
    >Hi all,
    >
    >Its really urgent. Hope its easy for someone.
    >
    >I was looking for problem on my mail server and printed some mails out of it (of course for testing) with 'print'. By chance some of them were important messages, now, how do I mark them unread, so that they can be downloaded.
    >  
    >
    Need more information.  What mail utility/server are you using, what 
    distro/release, local or remote server, etc.  To get a good answer you 
    need to provide as much related information as possible.
    Best
    Rickf
    ------------------------------
    Message: 14
    Date: Wed, 23 Jun 2004 10:53:11 -0500
    From: MKlinke <mklinke@axsi.com>
    Subject: Re: Please help as soon as possible
    To: General Red Hat Linux discussion list <redhat-list@redhat.com>
    Message-ID: <200406231053.11613.mklinke@axsi.com>
    Content-Type: text/plain;  charset="iso-8859-1"
    On Wednesday 23 June 2004 03:34, Nitin wrote:
    > Hi all,
    >
    > Its really urgent. Hope its easy for someone.
    >
    > I was looking for problem on my mail server and printed some mails
    > out of it (of course for testing) with 'print'. By chance some of
    > them were important messages, now, how do I mark them unread, so
    > that they can be downloaded.
    >
    > Please help me as soon as possible.
    >
    > Thanks in advance
    You forgot to say which mail user agent/software you are using but a 
    generally held convention is to right-click the message listing and 
    you'll be presented with a list of options that include several 
    different marking options.
    If this doesn't help you may want to include more information and 
    someone using the same software might be able to better help you.
    Regards,  Mike Klinke
    ------------------------------
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