Re: (?)useful document -- please copy, distribute
From: moma (moma_at_example.net)
Date: Sun, 04 Apr 2004 16:13:15 +0200
I just read the 1.st part your document.
Yes, the text will be very usefull. Thanks a lot!
Info about boot parameters such as lang= and screen= are important.
One thing though. (I had to find something to point out -;)
> MS-Windows Data
> Even though you run Linux (Knoppix), you can access your data files on
> your MS-Windows hard drive or off a floppy or CDROM drive. Microsoft
> Windows refers to computer drives as “C:” (hard drive), “A:”
> (floppy), perhaps “D:” or “E:” for CD-ROM drives.
> Linux does not name drives with letters; instead, your MS-Windows drives
> will be accessed as /mnt/floppy, /mnt/cdrom, /mnt/winxp, or perhaps
> /mnt/hda1 or /mnt/hdb4, etc. (hda refers to your primary hard drive”,
The "MS-Windows Data" section is pretty technical. If your audience is
skilled windows' users then the text is just fine. For them it"s
relevant to learn about drives and /mnt/xxx at the first Linux encounter.
But some end-users may perceive, understand the words like 'document'
and 'folder' better than 'drives'.
So one could write>
..."You will find your existing windows folders and documents in
/mnt/winxp or /mnt/hda directories."
---- Cheers & Thanks! // moma Beowulf wrote: > I have been working on a document to provide to people I give a copy of > Knoppix to. Here is the document. Please feel free to copy it, > distribute it, modify it, put it on webpages, add to it, wrap your > sandwich in it, whatever! (smile). Pertains to latest distro of Knoppix > (v3.3). Second half of document is very general, pertains to linux, unix > etc. > ~Beowulf (Randall Oelerich) > > _-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- > > Knoppix CD-ROM Usage > [freely distribute, modify, or add to this document] > > What is Knoppix? http://knoppix.org or http://knoppix.com Knoppix is a > “live” version of Linux in that you can boot and run it from your > computer CDROM drive. You do not need to install it to your computer hard > drive. Because it runs off your CDROM, realize it runs slower than if it > were installed on your hard drive. Knoppix is a full, free, unrestrained > version of the Linux operating system, complete with a graphical user > interface (GUI) and lots of useful software. Linux is an alternative > operating system to Microsoft Windows, and yet is able to access and use > your data on your Microsoft Windows hard drive (word processor documents, > Excel and other spreadsheet data files, image files, etc.). > > Why use Knoppix? It comes with lots of free open source useful software > (games, word processors, image editors, internet browsers, spreadsheets, > mp3 music player, command line terminals, and lots more!). Check out the > game Chromium – a great arcade action game. Check out OpenOffice-- a > clone of MS-Office with a full-featured word processor, spreadsheet, and > clone of MS-Powerpoint. Check out the GIMP – a full-featured clone of > Adobe Photoshop image editor. All this software would cost you thousands > of dollars, but it is all on the Knoppix CD for free! > > What's the Catch? None. This is what open source software and the free > software movement is all about – free software and free operating > systems for people. > > To Run Knoppix: Insert the CDROM disk into your CD drive and then reboot > your computer (or shutdown Windows and then turn your computer back on); > if Knoppix loads, fine. If Knoppix does not load, then your computer is > not configured to boot an operating system (like Knoppix/Linux) from a CD > and you will need to reconfigure your computer BIOS (not as hard as it > might seem). > > If you insert the Knoppix CD into your drive while running Microsoft > Windows and you may see a screen of instructions appear explaining what > Knoppix is, how to run it, etc. > > If you need to reconfigure your BIOS to boot a CD (hopefully you will not > need to do this-- most computers are set up to boot a CD so you can rescue > your computer if it crashes or if you need to reinstall MS-Windows, > etc.)-- either get a geek friend to help you, or when you power up your > computer look at the screen to see if it says something like “Press DEL > to enter BIOS” (or maybe Press F1... etc). You need to find the key to > hold down immediately upon turning on your computer that will let you get > into your computer BIOS menu; usually the key is F1 or DEL or ESC or one > of the other function keys (F5, F10, F11, etc.). Once you get into your > BIOS menu, look for the option to specify the order of Booting (Hard > Drive, Floppy, CDROM) and make sure that CDROM is first in the order for > booting. Save your BIOS settings and reboot! That's all! > > > Advanced Knoppix usage: (ignore this if you wish!) > > When you boot (run) Knoppix off the CD, you see “boot:” for a few > seconds on the screen – this is a command prompt that gives you a chance > to type some extra information to modify how Knoppix runs. Press the F2 > key when you see “boot:” to see a list of options that you could type > at the “boot:” prompt. > > One of the options you might try typing is an option to change the default > GUI that runs. By default, Knoppix boots and displays the KDE graphics > user interface (GUI, 'desktop'). KDE resembles Microsoft Windows and you > will likely be most comfortable with this. > > Knoppix can run using any of several different GUI desktops – KDE, > Fluxbox, Ice, Window Maker, and others. KDE (looks like MS Windows) loads > by default. To load the Fluxbox desktop instead of KDE, when you see the > “Boot:” prompt during booting of the CDROM, type knoppix > desktop=fluxbox (and press the [Enter] key) and Knoppix will boot with > the Fluxbox desktop graphical user interface. > > At the “boot:” prompt, type knoppix desktop=icewm (and press the > [Enter] key) and Knoppix will boot with the Ice desktop graphical user > interface instead of the KDE gui. > > You can specify a language other than English, for example to use Spanish, > at the “boot:” prompt you would type knoppix lang=es (and press the > [Enter] key) > > You can specify a screen resolution. For example, at the “boot:” > prompt type > knoppix screen=1280x1024 > > You can specify failsafe startup (almost no hardware detection attempted). > At the “boot:” prompt type failsafe > > You can specify text-only (like in the old days before MS-Windows or Mac!) > mode. At the “boot:” prompt type knoppix 2 > > You can combine boot: options. For example, to boot Knoppix in the german > language, using the Fluxbox desktop graphical user interface, with a > screen resolution of 800x600 type > > knoppix lang=ge desktop=fluxbox screen=800x600 > > > Desktop Menus > Unlike Microsoft Windows, some Linux GUIs, like Fluxbox, allow you (and > sometimes require you) to access the system menu by clicking the mouse > anywhere on the screen. Generally in such cases you click the mouse's > right mouse button. The KDE desktop, however, acts much more like > Microsoft Windows, in that you utilize a “Start” menu button in the > lower left (that should have a tiny vertical triangle on it). > > Regardless of which GUI you use, experiment by clicking the right or left > or even middle mouse buttons – different things will happen depending on > the GUI you are using. > > > Virtual Desktops > Unline Microsoft Windows, Linux desktops have several virtual desktops. > Each virtual desktop can have application programs running it. You can > freely move between the virtual desktops in different ways depending on > the GUI (KDE, Fluxbox, etc) you are using; with KDE, you will see on the > taskbar along the bottom of the screen the numbers , , etc. -- > clicking these numbers will take you to that virtual desktop. > > MS-Windows Data > Even though you run Linux (Knoppix), you can access your data files on > your MS-Windows hard drive or off a floppy or CDROM drive. Microsoft > Windows refers to computer drives as “C:” (hard drive), “A:” > (floppy), perhaps “D:” or “E:” for CD-ROM drives. > > Linux does not name drives with letters; instead, your MS-Windows drives > will be accessed as /mnt/floppy, /mnt/cdrom, /mnt/winxp, or perhaps > /mnt/hda1 or /mnt/hdb4, etc. (hda refers to your primary hard drive”, > hdb refers to your second hard drive if you have one) So if you want to > see your drives, use one of the Linux file managers (like Knoppix or > Nautilus) and look at “/mnt” to see your listed drives (that you can > then click on to see files on). Or if you are using OpenOffice Writer (a > clone of MS-Word) and want to load and edit an MS-Word file off your > Windows hard drive, you will “open” a file and look for that file off > a drive named perhaps /mnt/hda (or perhaps /mnt/winxp). > > > “Help!”: If you need help, you have several recourses: > > --Find a geek friend and buy her a bag of Cheetos and a 2-Liter of > caffeinated pop and have her come over and help you out. > > --Post a help message on a linux newsgroup such as alt.os.linux (go to > Google Groups and you can locate this group and read and post messages). > > --Get thee to a local linux user's group (In Duluth, there is DSLUUG a > local linux/unix user group-- see http://dsluug.org for more info or to > sign up on the email discussion list where you can get help). > > --Websites: > http://knoppix.org > http://www.knoppix-std.org/forum/ (knoppix discussion board) > http://linux.org > http://dsluug.org (Duluth user group for open source / linux / unix) > http://randalloelerich.net > > > > > > > Linux and KDE Desktop (=window manager) Lessons: > > 1. KDE Desktop Window Manager > * Click lower left icon that looks like a big "K" or maybe an “up > arrow” -- this is analogous to the Microsoft Windows 'start' menu > button. Clicking the "K" will cause a popup menu to appear, so you can > choose software applications by category much like you would after > clicking the MS-Windows start button. > > *Notice along the bottom of the screen the taskbar has a number of > shortcut icons, AND notice also something very unique-- four tiny numbered > panels numbered 1,2,3 and 4; these are the "virtual desktops" of linux. > Each virtual desktop can contain running applications, have its separate > color scheme and wallpaper, etc. Just click on a virtual desktop panel > thumbnail (tiny icon) to go to that virtual desktop. You can configure > each desktop's color scheme, wallpaper, etc.: Start > Menu->Configuration->KDE->LookFeel->Background. (you can even configure > multiple wallpapers that change every few minutes!) > > You can also custom configure your desktop windows style, theme, etc. > (e.g. make it look like a Mac or MS-Windows, or something more unusual).: > Start Menu->Configuration->KDE->LookFeel->ThemeManager (or Fonts, etc.) > > *KDE also has a Trashcan, similar to the Trash/Garbage icon of Macintosh, > or the Recycle bin of MS-Windows. Clicking on the Trash icon accesses > files that you have "trashed" (but if you "delete" files, they are gone > forever-- well pretty much-- there are sophisticated file recovery > applications but do not count on them to recover deleted files). > > *At the lower right is a clock showing the time. Left click on it to bring > up a calendar. Left click the clock again to make the calendar disappear. > > *Just to the left of the clock in the lower right is a tiny icon that > looks like a grid-- left click it once and wait a few seconds-- an > application called kOrganizer will appear. This application ("app") can be > used to plan yor schedule, etc. To cause it or any other application to > close, you can just as in MS-Windows use the titlebar buttons to close, > minimize, maximize, or dock any application; or you can use options from > the applications File menu (File->Close, etc.). > > *On the lower taskbar look for an icon that has a tiny "house" or "home" > as part of the icon. If you click the 'home' icon you will see files and > folders that are part of your 'home' in linux. In linux, 'home' is a > folder where all users' reside. If your linux username is 'geek' then your > userspace and all your files and folders are on the linux hard disk in a > folder called /home/geek but there is a quicker way to refer to > /home/geek, that is your userspace, in other words your home directory, > and that is with the keyboard symbol '~' > > *Along the bottom taskbar, just to the left of the virtual desktop panel > icons, is an icon of a piece of paper and a fountain pen. Click it to > activate KWrite, a simple but good word processor ('text editor'). KWrite > is somewhat like MS-Windows' MS-Word. However KWrite documents can only be > saved as KWrite documents-- but luckily other word processors of linux can > open and edit KWrite documents and then save such documents in many > popular file formats (MS-Word, etc.). > > Type something, anything (if only a few random characters) using Kwrite, > and save it under the filename 'mydoc' (omit the quote symbols of course). > Do this, because you will need a sample document to work with later in > this tutorial. Notice when you save your KWrite document (see top of > KWrite) it is by default being saved to a folder in your home folder > (directory) called Documents; you could override this, but let's not for > now. > > *Along the bottom taskbar look for an icon that looks like a globe with > some spikes on it-- this is the icon to activate Konqueror, a powerful > internet browser as well as file manager. If you are connected to the > internet you can use Konqueror to type in website addresses and surf the > internet. Or, you can simply use Konqueror to browse files on the hard > disk(s) of your computer (and cut, copy, paste, delete, trash, move, or > rename files, and much more). [Remember though, linux is a multiuser > operating system-- so you can only damage files that are yours, that are > in your home folder; you can perhaps read files that are not in your home > folder, but you can not save any of your documents into folders outside of > your home folder. You can not delete or trash files that are not in your > home folder. This prevents you from harming important system files, or > files of other users (and they from harming your files).] > > *So what can linux do? Lots! Need a full-featured word processor on par > and compatible with Microsoft Word? Then click the K icon, then Office, > then Wordprocessors, then OpenOffice.org Writer. Need a full-featured > spreadsheet on par and compatible with Microsoft Excel? Then click the K > icon, then Office, then Spreadsheets, then OpenOffice.org Calc. Need a > full-featured presentation application on par and compatible with > Microsoft PowerPoint? Then click the K icon, then Office, then > Presentations, then OpenOffice.org Impress. By now you should have > figured out that linux has a powerful opensource (free) application suite > called OpenOffice.org, on par and compatible with Microsoft Office. > OpenOffice can read and write files from MS-Word, MS-Excel, and > Powerpoint! > > *Along the bottom taskbar look for an icon that looks like a TV monitor > with a clamshell on it-- this is the shortcut icon for a 'terminal', also > known as a 'console'. You can also access a variety of terminals by click > the K button, then Terminals. All terminals have the same basic > functionality, so choose whichever one you prefer. Once you have a > terminal activated you will see screen showing your username, perhaps the > date, and some sort of keyboard command prompt (like a $ sign, or perhaps > # sign). The terminal is keyboard driven, meaning you use the keyboard to > type commands followed by pressing the [Enter] key. > > *NOTE: CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE key combination will exit you from the Desktop > back to the login screen. This is useful if the Desktop graphical user > interface ever freezes up, which is rare, very rare compared to Windows. > And if an application every freezes up, you can 'kill it' by first > double-clicking and running the Xkill application (see icon on desktop) > and then clicking your mouse on the title bar of the frozen application > you want to 'kill'. > > > > > > > TERMINAL COMMAND LINE FUN! > > Let's do a few simple terminal commands so you can see an alternative way > of working with linux other than using the mouse and graphical user > interface. Click the left mouse button in the terminal window to be sure > linux knows you want to use the terminal window. Then start typing the > following commands (comments are in parentheses-- do not type them, nor > the command prompt which we will symbolize here by the '#' symbol): > > #ls (you will then see a list of files and folders in your home folder, > that is your linux userspace; notice a folder called Documents/, which > likely contains mydoc, the KWrite document you created earlier. > > #cd Documents ('c'hanges to 'd'irectory called Documents) > > #ls (do you see mydoc in the listing, you should) > > #clear (cleans up the screen, clears the terminal display) > > #ls -l (shows 'l'ong listing, i.e. detailed listing, including file > sizes, owership of files, date of file creation, etc.) > > #less mydoc (shows contents of mydoc; IMPORTANT: you will need to press > the 'q' key to exit the display of the file contents and return to the > command prompt. less is a very powerful and common terminal command) > > #cp mydoc mydoc.backup (copies mydoc to a new file 'mydoc.backup') > > #ls (do you see mydoc and mydoc.backup?) > > #rm mydoc.backup (removes mydoc.backup, that is deletes it) > > #mv mydoc somedoc (renames mydoc to somedoc, i.e. moves contents of > mydoc to a new file called somedoc) > > #ls (mydoc is gone! it is now called somedoc) > > #cp somedoc anotherdoc (makes a copy of somedoc, called anotherdoc) > > (Ok, you may be thinking "This terminal stuff is geeky, but is it useful? > And it seems like you have to type a lot!" Linux has a very cool gizmo > for eliminating lots of typing in the command mode-- it is the [TAB] key > on your keyboard... try this:) > > #cp an[TAB] mydoc (notice how linux figured out the rest of the filename > once you type just 'an' and pressed the [TAB] key? Pretty cool!) > > #cd ~ (changes directories to your home folder, your userspace) > > #pwd (shows where you are, 'prints working director') > > #ls (do you see the folder called Documents?) > > #cd Docu[TAB] (use that cool [TAB] key shortcut!) > > > #ls *doc (wow! the power of the 'wildcard' feature! Using the '*' > symbol is like a wildcard in a card game; here, we are telling linux to > list all files in the current folder with a filename ending in doc, so > we will see files listed such as somedoc, anotherdoc) > > #mv *doc ~ (moves all files ending in doc to home space; this is a > powerful command, the ability to mass move large numbers of files > matching certain filename criteria!) > > #cd ~ > > #ls (notice the new location of the files you moved?) > > #mkdir mydocs (create a new directory folder called mydoc in the current > directory which is currently home) > > #mv *doc mydocs (moves sampledoc and anotherdoc to mydocs folder) > > #cd mydocs > > #ls > > #rm * (deletes all files in current directory! This is a very powerful > but very dangerous command! Be careful! It permanently deletes all files > in current folder. However, linux has a safeguard-- for each file you > will be asked if you want to delete it-- this safeguard can be > overridden easily, but for now it is best not to know how to do this. In > fact, you might be better off answering 'n' when asked whether to delete > these files, at least for now. Alternatively, try something new-- when > you do the 'rm *' command, cancel it by pressing the key sequence > [Ctrl][c]. Ctrl+c is the keyboard shortcut to cancel a linux command > that is currently runnin-- very useful to know.). > > (Whew! Give youself a pat on the back if you made it this far-- you > learned how to use quite a few of the most common linux terminal mode > commands! You learned to use cd, ls, mv, cp, pwd, [TAB], rm, clear, and > the powerful wildcard symbol '*'). > > > > ADVANCED (MORE) TERMINAL COMMAND LINE FUN! > #xmms & (runs application called xmms in background mode, that is > multitasking mode, as a process; xmms is a common mp3 music player; > notice you will need to click your mouse again in the terminal window > because linux things you want to use xmms as your current application. > This examples shows you how you can activate applications from the > terminal command line in addition to using the graphical interface menu > system!) > > #mozilla & (runs application called mozilla; mozilla is basically > Netscape, a powerful browser). > > >