Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers (Part 1 of 6)

rkiesling_at_mainmatter.com
Date: 04/10/04


Date: 10 Apr 2004 12:13:28 GMT

Archive-Name: linux/faq/part1
URL: http://www.mainmatter.com/
Reply-to: rkiesling@mainmatter.com
Posting-Frequency: weekly
Last-modified: 12/04/2001

Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers

This is the list of Frequently Asked Questions for Linux, the free
operating system kernel that runs on many modern computer systems. The
kernel source code documentation says that Linux "aims for POSIX
compliance." Linux uses mostly free, GNU system utilities and
application software, although commercial programs are available also.
Originally written for 386/486/586 Intel/ISA bus machines, Linux
versions exist for nearly every hardware platform in existence that is
capable of running it. (Please refer to the question, "What Is Linux?"
below.) This FAQ is meant to be read in conjunction with the Linux
Documentation Project's HOWTO series. ("Where Are the Linux FTP
Archives?" and, "Where Is the Documentation?") The INFO-SHEET and
META-FAQ also list sources of Linux information. Please read them,
and, "If this Document Still Hasn't Answered Your Question...." before
posting to a Usenet news group. You can also get Postscript, PDF,
HTML, and SGML versions of this document. ("Formats in Which This FAQ
Is Available.") Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers is
distributed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
Refer to "Disclaimer and Copyright.."

1. Introduction and General Information
       
     1.1. What Is Linux?
     1.2. How to Get Started.
     1.3. What Software does Linux Support?
     1.4. How to Find a Particular Application.
     1.5. What Hardware Is Supported?
     1.6. Ports to Other Processors.
     1.7. Disk Space Requirements: Minimal, Server, and Workstation.
     1.8. Minimum and Maximum Memory Requirements.
     1.9. Does Linux Support Universal System Bus Devices?
     1.10. What Is Linux's Open-Source License?
     1.11. Is Linux *nix?
             
2. Network Sources and Resources
       
     2.1. Where Is the Latest Kernel Version on the Internet?
     2.2. Where Is the Documentation?
     2.3. Where Is the Linux Stuff on the World Wide Web?
     2.4. What News Groups Are There for Linux?
     2.5. What Other FAQ's and Documentation Are There for Linux?
     2.6. Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?
     2.7. How To Get Linux without FTP Access.
     2.8. How To Get Information without Usenet Access.
     2.9. What Mailing Lists Are There?
     2.10. Where Are Linux Legal Issues Discussed?
     2.11. Sources of Information for Unmaintained Free Software
             Projects.
             
     2.12. Are the News Groups Archived Anywhere?
     2.13. Where To Find Information About Security Related Issues.
     2.14. Where To Find Linux System Specifications.
             
3. Compatibility with Other Operating Systems
       
     3.1. Can Linux Use the Same Hard Drive as MS-DOS? OS/2? 386BSD?
             Win95?
             
     3.2. How To Access Files on a MS-DOS Partition or Floppy.
     3.3. Does Linux Support Compressed Ext2 File Systems?
     3.4. Can Linux Use Stacked/DBLSPC/Etc. DOS Drives?
     3.5. Can Linux Access OS/2 HPFS Partitions?
     3.6. Can Linux Access Amiga File Systems?
     3.7. Can Linux Access BSD, SysV, Etc. UFS?
     3.8. Can Linux Access SMB File Systems?
     3.9. Can Linux Access Macintosh File Systems?
     3.10. Can Linux Run Microsoft Windows Programs?
     3.11. Where Is Information about NFS Compatibility?
     3.12. Can Linux Use True Type Fonts?
     3.13. Can Linux Boot from MS-DOS?
     3.14. How Can Linux Boot from OS/2's Boot Manager?
             
4. File Systems, Disks, and Drives
       
     4.1. How To Get Linux to Work with a Disk.
     4.2. How To Undelete Files.
     4.3. How To Make Backups.
     4.4. How To Resize a Partition (Non-Destructively).
     4.5. Is There a Defragmenter for Ext2fs?
     4.6. How To Create a File System on a Floppy.
     4.7. Does Linux Support Virtualized File Systems Like RAID?
     4.8. Does Linux Support File System Encryption?
     4.9. Linux Prints Nasty Messages about Inodes, Blocks, and the
             Like.
             
     4.10. The Swap Area Isn't Working.
     4.11. How To Add Temporary Swap Space.
     4.12. How To Remove LILO So the System Boots DOS Again?
     4.13. Why Does fdformat Require Superuser Privileges?
     4.14. The System Checks the Ext2fs Partitions Each Reboot.
     4.15. Root File System Is Read-Only.
     4.16. What Is /proc/kcore?
     4.17. The AHA1542C Doesn't Work with Linux.
     4.18. Where Is the Journalling File System on the Net?
             
5. Porting, Compiling and Obtaining Programs
       
     5.1. How To Compile Programs.
     5.2. How To Install GNU Software.
     5.3. Where To Get Java.
     5.4. How To Port XXX to Linux.
     5.5. What Is ld.so and How To Get It?
     5.6. How To Upgrade the Libraries without Trashing the System.
     5.7. How To Use Code or a Compiler Compiled for a 486 on a 386.
     5.8. What Does "gcc -O6" Do?
     5.9. Where Are linux/*.h and asm/*.h?
     5.10. What To Do about Errors Trying to Compile the Kernel.
     5.11. How To Make a Shared Library.
     5.12. Programs Are Very Large.
     5.13. Does Linux Support Threads or Lightweight Processes?
     5.14. Where To Find lint for Linux.
     5.15. Where To Find Kermit for Linux.
     5.16. How To Use Linux with a Cable Modem.
     5.17. Is There an ICQ Program That Runs under Linux?
             
6. Solutions to Common Miscellaneous Problems
       
     6.1. FTP Transfers Seem to Hang.
     6.2. Free Dumps Core.
     6.3. Netscape Crashes Frequently.
     6.4. FTP or Telnet Server Won't Allow Logins.
     6.5. How To Keep Track of Bookmarks in Netscape?
     6.6. The Computer Has the Wrong Time.
     6.7. Setuid Scripts Don't Seem to Work.
     6.8. Free Memory as Reported by free Keeps Shrinking.
     6.9. When Adding More Memory, the System Slows to a Crawl.
     6.10. Some Programs (E.g. xdm) Won't Allow Logins.
     6.11. Some Programs Allow Logins with No Password.
     6.12. The Machine Runs Very Slowly with GCC / X / ...
     6.13. System Only Allows Root Logins.
     6.14. The Screen Is All Full of Weird Characters Instead of
             Letters.
             
     6.15. I Screwed Up the System and Can't Log In to Fix It.
     6.16. I Forgot the root Password.
     6.17. There's a Huge Security Hole in rm!
     6.18. lpr and/or lpd Don't Work.
     6.19. Timestamps on Files on MS-DOS Partitions Are Set
             Incorrectly
             
     6.20. How To Get LILO to Boot the Kernel Image.
     6.21. How To Make Sure the System Boots after Re-Installing the
             Operating System.
             
     6.22. The PCMCIA Card Doesn't Work after Upgrading the Kernel.
     6.23. How To Remove (or Change) the Colors in the ls Display.
     6.24. Why Won't a Program Work in the Current Directory?
             
7. How To Do This or Find Out That...
       
     7.1. How To Find Out If a Notebook Runs Linux.
     7.2. Installing Linux Using FTP.
     7.3. Resuming an Interrupted Download.
     7.4. Boot-Time Configuration.
     7.5. Formatting Man Pages without man or groff.
     7.6. How To Scroll Backwards in Text Mode.
     7.7. How To Get Email to Work.
     7.8. Sendmail Pauses for Up to a Minute at Each Command.
     7.9. How To Enable and Select Virtual Consoles.
     7.10. How To Set the Time Zone.
     7.11. Dial-up PPP Configuration.
     7.12. What Version of Linux and What Machine Name Is This?
     7.13. What Is a "core" File?
     7.14. How To Enable or Disable Core Dumps.
     7.15. How To Upgrade/Recompile a Kernel.
     7.16. Can Linux Use More than 3 Serial Ports by Sharing
             Interrupts?
             
     7.17. Configuring Emacs's Default Settings.
     7.18. How To Make a Rescue Floppy.
     7.19. How To Remap a Keyboard to UK, French, Etc.?
     7.20. How To Get NUM LOCK to Default to On.
     7.21. How To Set (Or Reset) Initial Terminal Colors.
     7.22. How To Have More Than 128Mb of Swap.
     How To Prevent Errors when Linking Programs with Math Functions.
             
8. Miscellaneous Information and Questions Answered
       
     8.1. How To Program XYZ Under Linux.
     8.2. What's All This about ELF? glibc?
     8.3. How To Determine What Packages Are Installed on a System.
     8.4. What Is a .gz File? And a .tgz? And .bz2? And... ?
     8.5. What Does VFS Stand For?
     8.6. What is a BogoMip?
     8.7. What Online/Free Periodicals Exist for Linux?
     8.8. How Many People Use Linux?
     8.9. How Many People Use Linux? (Redux.)
     8.10. What Is the Best (Distribution|SCSI Card|Editor|CD-ROM
             Drive|....)
             
     8.11. How Does One Pronounce Linux?
             
9. Frequently Encountered Error Messages
       
     9.1. Modprobe Can't Locate Module, XXX, and Similar Messages.
     9.2. Unknown Terminal Type "linux" and Similar.
     9.3. INET: Warning: old style ioctl... called!
     9.4. ld: unrecognized option '-m486'
     9.5. GCC Says, "Internal compiler error."
     9.6. Make Says, "Error 139."
     9.7. Shell-Init: Permission Denied when I Log In.
     9.8. No Utmp Entry. You Must Exec ... when Logging In.
     9.9. Warning--bdflush Not Running.
     9.10. Warning: obsolete routing request made.
     9.11. EXT2-fs: warning: mounting unchecked file system.
     9.12. EXT2-fs warning: maximal count reached.
     9.13. EXT2-fs warning: checktime reached.
     9.14. df Says, "Cannot read table of mounted file systems."
     9.15. fdisk Says, "Partition X has different physical/logical..."
     9.16. fdisk: Partition 1 does not start on cylinder boundary.
     9.17. fdisk Says Partition n Has an Odd Number of Sectors.
     9.18. Mtools Utilities Say They Cannot Initialize Drive X.
     9.19. At the Start of Booting: Memory tight
     9.20. The System Log Says, "end_request: I/O error, ...."
     9.21. "You don't exist. Go away."
     9.22. "Operation not permitted."
     9.23. programname: error in loading shared libraries: lib
             xxx..so. x: cannot open shared object file: No such file
             or directory.
             
     9.24. "init: Id "x" respawning too fast: disabled for 5 minutes."
     9.25. FTP server says: "421 service not available, remote server
             has closed connection."
             
10. The X Window System
       
     10.1. Does Linux Support X?
     10.2. How To Get the X Window System to Work.
     10.3. Where To Find a Ready-Made XF86Config file.
     10.4. What Desktop Environments Run on Linux?
     10.5. xterm Logins Show Up Strangely in who, finger.
     10.6. How to Start a X Client on Another Display.
             
11. How to Get Further Assistance
       
     11.1. If this Document Still Hasn't Answered Your Question....
     11.2. What to Put in a Request for Help.
     11.3. How To Email Someone about Your Problem.
             
12. Acknowledgments and Administrivia
       
     12.1. Where To Send Comments.
     12.2. Formats in Which This FAQ Is Available.
     12.3. Authorship and Acknowledgments.
     12.4. Disclaimer and Copyright.
             
1. Introduction and General Information

1.1. What Is Linux?

Linux is the kernel of operating systems that look like and perform as
well or better than the famous operating system from AT&T Bell Labs.
Linus Torvalds and a loosely knit team of volunteer hackers from
across the Internet wrote (and still are writing) Linux from scratch.
It has all of the features of a modern, fully fledged operating
system: true multitasking, threads, virtual memory, shared libraries,
demand loading, shared, copy-on-write executables, proper memory
management, loadable device driver modules, video frame buffering, and
TCP/IP networking.

Most people, however, refer to the operating system kernel, system
software, and application software, collectively, as "Linux," and that
convention is used in this FAQ as well.

Linux was written originally for 386/486/586-based PC's, using the
hardware facilities of the 80386 processor family to implement its
features. There are now many ports to other hardware platforms.
("Ports to Other Processors.")

There are also Linux distributions specifically for mobile and
handheld platforms. An API specification and developers kit for the
Crusoe Smart Microprocessor developed by Transmeta Corporation are at
http://www.transmeta.com/. Information on the Linux distribution for
the Compaq iPAQ is at http://www.handhelds.org/

Refer also to the Linux INFO-SHEET for more details as well as the
answers to "Where Is the Documentation?", "What Hardware Is
Supported?", and "Ports to Other Processors.", below. A list updated
weekly is at: http://lwn.net/ Archive of many of the distributions are
on line at: ftp://ftp.tux.org/ and http://planetmirror.com/pub/linux.

The Linux kernel is distributed under the GNU General Public License.
("What Is Linux's Open-Source License?")

There is a historical archive of all versions of the Linux kernel at
http://ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~rhw/kernel.versions.html.

1.2. How to Get Started.

There are a handful of major Linux distributions. For information
about them, and how they are installed, see Matthew Welsh's
Installation and Getting Started, or IGS for short. It's located at
the Linux Documentation Project Home Page, http://www.linuxdoc.org/,
and on the Linux FAQ home page, http://www.mainmatter.com/

The information in IGS is somewhat dated now. More up-to-date
information about first-time Linux installation is located in the
LDP's Installation HOWTO, also located at the LDP Home Page.

Postings on the Usenet News groups, including the FAQ, are archived on
http://groups.google.com/. Search for "comp.os.linux.*,"
"alt.uu.comp.os.linux.*, or whatever is appropriate, to retrieve
articles from the Linux News groups. ("What News Groups Are There for
Linux?")

Commercial distributions are available from book and electronics
stores. Some hardware vendors now ship systems with Linux
pre-installed.

There is a very thorough installation guide on line at
http://heather.cs.ucdavis.edu/~matloff/linux.html.

Some distributions can still be installed via anonymous FTP from
various Linux archive sites, but in many cases, the size of the
distribution makes this impractical. ("Where Are the Linux FTP
Archives?") There are also a large number of releases which are
distributed less globally that suit special local and national needs.
Many of them are archived at ftp://ftp.tux.org/

1.3. What Software does Linux Support?

All of the standard open source utilities, like GCC, (X)Emacs, the X
Window System, all the standard Unix utilities, TCP/IP (including SLIP
and PPP), and all of the hundreds of programs that people have
compiled or ported to it.

There is a DOS emulator, called DOSEMU. The latest stable release is
0.98.3. The FTP archives are at ftp://ftp.dosemu.org/dosemu The Web
site is http://www.dosemu.org.

The emulator can run DOS itself and some (but not all) DOS
applications. Be sure to look at the README file to determine which
version you should get. Also, see the DOSEMU-HOWTO (slightly dated at
this point--it doesn't cover the most recent version of the program),
at ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO.

Work has been progressing on an emulator for Microsoft Windows
binaries. ("Can Linux Run Microsoft Windows Programs?")

iBCS2 (Intel Binary Compatibility Standard) emulator code for SVR4 ELF
and SVR3.2 COFF binaries can be included in the kernel as a
compile-time option. There is information at
ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/BETA/ibcs2/README.

For more information see the INFO-SHEET, which is one of the HOWTO's
("Where Is the Documentation?" and "How To Port XXX to Linux.")

Some companies have commercial software available. They often announce
their availability on comp.os.linux.announce-- try searching the
archives. ("Are the News Groups Archived Anywhere?")

1.4. How to Find a Particular Application.

Look first in the Linux Software Map. It's at:
ftp://ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/linux-software-map/, and on the other
FTP sites. A search engine is available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.boutell.com/lsm/.

Also check out the Freshmeat Web site: http://www.freshmeat.net, which
is where many new announcements of free software first appear.
Freshmeat is basically a site index that continuously updates the
notices of new or upgraded software for Linux, and maintains indexes
of the announcements and links to their URL's.

The FTP sites ("Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?") often have ls-lR
or INDEX directory listings which you can search using grep or a text
editor. The directory listings files can be very large, however,
making them unwieldy for quick searches.

Also look at the Linux Projects Map:
ftp://ftp.ix.de/pub/ix/Linux/docs/Projects-Map.gz.

There's a search engine for Linux FTP archives at:
http://lfw.linuxhq.com/.

Searching for "Linux" on the World Wide Web provides copious
references. ("Where Is the Linux Stuff on the World Wide Web?")

If you don't find anything, you could download the sources to the
program yourself and compile them. See (See: "How To Port XXX to
Linux.") If it's a large package that may require some porting, post a
message to comp.os.linux.development.apps.

If you compile a large-ish program, please upload it to one or more of
the FTP sites, and post a message to comp.os.linux.announce (submit
your posting to linux-announce@news.ornl.gov).

If you're looking for an application program, the chances are that
someone has already written a free version. The comp.sources.wanted
FAQ has instructions for finding the source code.

1.5. What Hardware Is Supported?

A minimal Linux installation requires a machine for which a port
exists, at least 2Mb of RAM, and a single floppy drive. But to do
anything even remotely useful, more RAM and disk space are needed.
Refer to: "Ports to Other Processors.", "Disk Space Requirements:
Minimal, Server, and Workstation.", and "Minimum and Maximum Memory
Requirements."

Intel CPU, PC-compatible machines require at least an 80386 processor
to run the standard Linux kernel.

Linux, including the X Window System GUI, runs on most current
laptops. Refer to the answer for: "How To Find Out If a Notebook Runs
Linux." There are numerous sources of information about specific PC's,
video cards, disk controllers, and other hardware. Refer to the
INFO-SHEET, Laptop HOWTO, and the Hardware HOWTO. ("Where Is the
Documentation?")

1.6. Ports to Other Processors.

The Web site, Overview of Linux Ports:
http://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/~kreutzm/de/lin_plattforms.html
provides a listing of known ports.

Another site with a list of ports is:
http://lodda.igo.uni-hannover.de/ports/linux_ports.html

In addition, the following information is available about specific
ports:

On Intel platforms, VESA Local Bus and PCI bus are supported.

MCA (IBM's proprietary bus) and ESDI hard drives are mostly supported.
There is further information on the MCA bus and what cards Linux
supports on the Micro Channel Linux Web page,
http://www.dgmicro.com/mca. Refer also to the answer for: "Where Is
the Linux Stuff on the World Wide Web?"

There is a port of Linux to the 8086, known as the Embeddable Linux
Kernel Subset (ELKS). This is a 16-bit subset of the Linux kernel
which will mainly be used for embedded systems, at:
http://www.linux.org.uk/Linux8086.html. Standard Linux does not run
8086 or 80286 processors, because it requires task-switching and
memory management facilities found on 80386 and later processors.

Linux supports multiprocessing with Intel MP architecture. See the
file Documentation/smp.tex in the Linux kernel source code
distribution.

A project has been underway for a while to port Linux to suitable
68000-series based systems like Amigas and Ataris. The Linux/m68K FAQ
is located at http://www.clark.net/pub/lawrencc/linux/faq/faq.html.
The URL of the Linux/m68k home page is
http://www.linux-m68k.org/faq/faq.html.

There is a m68k port for the Amiga by Jes Sorensen, which is located
at ftp://sunsite.auc.dk/pub/os/linux/680x0/redhat/. The installation
FAQ for the package, by Ron Flory, is at
http://www.feist.com/~rjflory/linux/rh/.

There is also a linux-680x0 mailing list. ("What Mailing Lists Are
There?")

There is (or was) a FTP site for the Linux-m68k project on
ftp.phil.uni-sb.de/pub/atari/linux-68k, but this address may no longer
be current.

Debian GNU/Linux is being ported to Alpha, Sparc, PowerPC, and ARM
platforms. There are mailing lists for all of them. See
http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/subscribe

One of the Linux-PPC project pages has moved recently. Its location is
http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/subscribe. http://www.linuxppc.org,
and the archive site is ftp://ftp.linuxppc.org/linuxppc.

There is a Linux-PPC support page at http://www.cs.nmt.edu/~linuxppc/.
There you will find the kernel that is distributed with Linux.

There are two sites for the Linux iMac port:
http://w3.one.net/~johnb/imaclinux, and
http://www.imaclinux.net:8080/content/index.html.

A port to the 64-bit DEC Alpha/AXP is at
http://www.azstarnet.com/~axplinux/. There is a mailing list at
vger.redhat.com: ("What Mailing Lists Are There?")

Ralf Baechle is working on a port to the MIPS, initially for the R4600
on Deskstation Tyne machines. The Linux-MIPS FTP sites are
ftp://ftp.fnet.fr/linux-mips and
ftp://ftp.linux.sgi.com/pub/mips-linux. Interested people may mail
their questions and offers of assistance to linux@waldorf-gmbh.de.

There is (or was) also a MIPS channel on the Linux Activists mail
server and a linux-mips mailing list. ("What Mailing Lists Are
There?")

There are currently two ports of Linux to the ARM family of
processors. One of these is for the ARM3, fitted to the Acorn A5000,
and it includes I/O drivers for the 82710/11 as appropriate. The other
is to the ARM610 of the Acorn RISC PC. The RISC PC port is currently
in its early to middle stages, owing to the need to rewrite much of
the memory handling. The A5000 port is in restricted beta testing. A
release is likely soon.

For more, up-to-date information, read the newsgroup
comp.sys.acorn.misc. There is a FAQ at http://www.arm.uk.linux.org.

The Linux SPARC project is a hotbed of activity. There is a FAQ and
plenty of other information available from the UltraLinux page,
http://www.ultralinux.org/.

The Home Page of the UltraSPARC port ("UltraPenguin") is located at
http://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/linux/ultrapenguin-1.0/, although the URL
may not be current.

There is also a port to SGI/Indy machines ("Hardhat"). The URL is
http://www.linux.sgi.com/.

1.7. Disk Space Requirements: Minimal, Server, and Workstation.

About 10Mb for a very minimal installation, suitable for trying Linux,
and not much else.

You can fit a typical server installation, including the X Window
Systemt GUI, into 80Mb. Installing Debian GNU/Linux takes 500Mb-1GB,
including kernel source code, some space for user files, and spool
areas.

Installing a commercial distribution that has a desktop GUI
environment, commercial word processor, and front-office productivity
suite, will claim 1-1.5 GB of disk space, approximately.

1.8. Minimum and Maximum Memory Requirements.

At least 4MB, and then you will need to use special installation
procedures until the disk swap space is installed. Linux will run
comfortably in 4MB of RAM, although running GUI apps is impractically
slow because they need to swap out to disk.

Some applications, like StarOffice, require 32 MB of physical memory,
and compiling C++ code can easily consume over 100 MB of combined
physical and virtual memory.

There is a distribution, "Small Linux," that will run on machines with
2MB of RAM. Refer to the answer to: "Where Are the Linux FTP
Archives?"

A number of people have asked how to address more than 64 MB of
memory, which is the default upper limit in most standard kernels.
Either type, at the BOOT lilo: prompt:

mem=XXM

Or place the following in your /etc/lilo.conf file:

append="mem=XXM"

The parameter "XXM" is the amount of memory, specified as megabytes;
for example, "128M."

If an "append=" directive with other configuration options already
exists in /etc/lilo.conf, then add the mem= directive to the end of
the existing argument, and separated from the previous arguments by a
space; e.g.:

# Example only; do not use.
append="parport=0x3bc,none serial=0x3f8,4 mem=XXM"

Be sure to run the "lilo" command to install the new configuration.

If Linux still doesn't recognize the extra memory, the kernel may need
additional configuration. Refer to the
/usr/src/linux/Documentation/memory.txt file in the kernel source as a
start.

For further information about LILO, refer to the manual pages for lilo
and lilo.conf, the documentation in /usr/doc/lilo, and the answer for:
"Boot-Time Configuration.", below.

1.9. Does Linux Support Universal System Bus Devices?

Linux supports a few dozen USB devices at present, and work is
underway to develop additional device drivers. There is a Web page
devoted to the subject, at http://www.linux-usb.org/. There is also
LDP documentation, at: ("Where Is the Linux Stuff on the World Wide
Web?")

1.10. What Is Linux's Open-Source License?

The Linux trademark belongs to Linus Torvalds. He has placed the Linux
kernel under the GNU General Public License, which basically means
that you may freely copy, change, and distribute it, but you may not
impose any restrictions on further distribution, and you must make the
source code available.

There is a FAQ for the GPL at:
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gnu-faq.html.

This is not the same as Public Domain. See the Copyright FAQ,
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/law/copyright, for details.

Full details are in the file COPYING in the Linux kernel sources
(probably in /usr/src/linux on your system).

The licenses of the utilities and programs which come with the
installations vary. Much of the code is from the GNU Project at the
Free Software Foundation, and is also under the GPL.

Note that discussion about the merits or otherwise of the GPL should
be posted to the news group gnu.misc.discuss, and not to the
comp.os.linux hierarchy.

For legal questions, refer to the answer: ("Where Are Linux Legal
Issues Discussed?")

1.11. Is Linux *nix?

Not officially, until it passes the Open Group's certification tests,
and supports the necessary API's. Even very few of the commercial
operating systems have passed the Open Group tests. For more
information, see http://www.unix-systems.org/what_is_unix.html.

[Bob Friesenhahn]

2. Network Sources and Resources

2.1. Where Is the Latest Kernel Version on the Internet?

Make that versions. The 2.0 series kernels are still available for
older machines. The latest production kernel series is 2.2.x. The
updates to this kernel are bug fixes. The new 2.4 kernel sources are
also on-line.

The Web page at http://www.kernel.org/ lists the current versions of
the development and production kernels.

If you want to download the source code, FTP to ftp.xx.kernel.org,
where "xx" is the two-letter Internet domain abbreviation of your
country; e.g., "us" for United States, "ca" for Canada, or "de" for
Germany. Kernel versions 2.2.x are archived in the directory
pub/linux/kernel/v2.2, as are patches for the prerelease versions. The
kernel source code is archived as a .tar.gz file, and as a .tar.bz2
file.

Follow the instructions in any of the standard references to compile
the kernel, as you would with any other custom kernel. The
Documentation subdirectory contains information by the authors of
various subsystems and drivers, and much of that information is not
documented elsewhere.

If you want to participate in kernel development, make sure that you
sign on to the linux-kernel mailing list to find out what people are
working on. Refer to the answer: "What Mailing Lists Are There?"

There is a story about the features of the 2.4 series kernels at
http://features.linuxtoday.com/stories/8191.html.

2.2. Where Is the Documentation?

Look in the following places, and the sites that mirror them.

  * http://www.linuxdoc.org/
  * ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/OS/Linux/doc/HOWTO/
  * ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/docs/HOWTO/
  * ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/
    
For a list of Linux FTP sites, refer to the answer for: "Where Are the
Linux FTP Archives?"

If you don't have access to FTP, try the FTP-by-mail servers:
ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com, ftpmail@doc.ic.ac.uk, or:
ftp-mailer@informatik.tu-muenchen.de.

A complete list of HOWTO's is available in the file HOWTO-INDEX at
http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/howtos.html. The
mini-HOWTO's are indexed at
http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/mini.html.

A search engine at the Linux FAQ Home Page,
http://www.mainmatter.com/, allows you to search LDP HOWTO's, the
Linux FAQ, man pages, and Network Administrator's Guide.

In addition, translations are available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/ and mirrors
worldwide. The HOWTO's and other documentation have been translated
into the following languages:

Chinese (Big5) (zh) Croatian (hr) French (fr)
German (de Hellenic (el) Indonesian (id)
Italian (it) Japanese (ja) Korean (ko)
Polish (pl) Slovenian (sl) Spanish (es)
Swedish (sv) Turkish (tr)

Additional documents are always in preparation. Please get in touch
with the coordinators if you are interested in writing one. Contact
and submission information is at
http://www.linuxdoc.org/mailinfo.html.

There is also a LDP HOWTO page at http://howto.tucows.org/.

The Guide Series produced by the Linux Documentation Project is
available from http://www.linuxdoc.org/. Please read them if you are
new to Unix and Linux.

The Linux Mobile Guide is an expanded version of the
Linux-Laptop-HOWTO. The URL is: http://home.snafu.de/wehe/howtos.html.

And, of course, a number of people have written documentation
independently of the LDP:

  * Linux Administrators Security Guide, by Kurt Seifried.
    http://www.freek.com/lasg/.
  * Newbie's Linux Manual. http://www.linuxdoc.org/nlm/.
  * One-Page Linux Manual. http://www.powerup.com.au/~squadron/.
  * Rute Users Tutorial and Exposition. http://rute.sourceforge.net/.
  * Short beginners' manual for Linux. Also available in Dutch.
    http://www.stuwww.kub.nl/people/b.vannunen/linux-man.php3.
  * Virtual Frame buffer HOWTO, by Alex Buell.
    http://www.tahallah.demon.co.uk/programming/prog.html.
  * X11 & TrueType Fonts, by Peter Kleiweg.
    http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/.
    
Documentation for kernel developers is on-line:
http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net/.

To find out about Linux memory management, including performance
tuning, see Rik van Riel's Web page at
http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/.

The Linux Consultants HOWTO has a directory of Linux consultants at
http://www.linuxports.com/.

Gary's Encyclopedia lists over 4,000 Linux related links. Its URL is
http://members.aa.net/~swear/pedia/index.html.

There is also a FAQ specifically for the Red Hat Linux distribution,
at http://www.best.com/~aturner/RedHat-FAQ/faq_index.html.

And the Home Page of this FAQ is http://www.mainmatter.com/.

2.3. Where Is the Linux Stuff on the World Wide Web?

In addition to the Linux Documentation Project Home Page:
http://www.linuxdoc.org/, there are many pages that provide beginning
and advanced information about Linux.

These two pages provide a good starting point for general Linux
information: Linux International's Home Page, at http://www.li.org/,
and the Linux Online's Linux Home Page at http://www.linux.org/.

Both of these pages provide links to other sites, information about
general information, distributions, new software, documentation, and
news.

Documentation for kernel developers is on-line:
http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net/.

The tutorial, Unix is a Four Letter Word..., is located at
http://www.linuxbox.com/~taylor/4ltrwrd/. It is a general introduction
to Unix operating systems and is not Linux specific.



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