How does Linux partition logical address space as far as User/Kernel space is concerned, especially when it comes to deciding what gets mapped to virtual versus physical RAM?
From: Dustin Darcy (aktuld_at_hotmail.com)
Date: Sat, 20 Sep 2003 20:24:50 GMT
The norm for a memory allocation scheme is to use physical memory before
dumping the overflow to disk. However with Linux it's unique in that
there's a set limit for user and kernel space (aka monolithic kernel).
Which leads me to believe that the logical address space is set aside
ahead of time. Meaning that if a person has 2GBs of physical RAM and
chooses option 3GBs/1GBS of user/kernel space, that either 1GB of kernel
space and 1GB of user space will be allocated to physical RAM; OR, 2 GBs
of user space will go to physical RAM while the remaining 2 GBs (1 user,
the other kernel) will be virtual. This seems rather asinine, so I
hardly believe this is how it works.
It was also proposed to me that the system only considers how much it -
will- give to either user or kernel space. Meaning that at boot up, if a
system only uses 2 MBs of Kernel space, only 2 MBs gets mapped from the
the total available memory for Kernel space (as there's a cap). Also
meaning that those first 2 MBs would be allocated to physical memory.
Then as more would be requested more would be allocated for either user
or kernel space, straight from physical memory, till it ran out. This
sounds like a more solid schema, but at the same time it seems silly to
do things on a first come, first serve basis. It seems more reasonable
that it would partition each application such that each has some
physical memory to work in, and then to use a memory map for anything
additional to disk.
So the question is, how does Linux delegate it's memory with regards to
user/kernel space? Does Linux treat User/Kernel space just as a hard
limit, allocating memory as it's needed until it hits the cap for a
particular "type" of memory? Or does it preordain that kernel space will
be in physical memory while user space will get the remainder, whether
it be physical or not? Is there possibly another partitioning scheme,
similar to the one I suggested above?
I'm beginning to believe it's a simple tallying scheme, checking to see
how much kernel space or user space has been allocated.
3GB/1GB of User/Kernel space is available.
2 MBs gets allocated at boot-time for the kernel and it's modules -
50 MBs gets allocated to X in user space - (3.000GBs-
So on and so forth.
I imagine that the logical address space is just a series of pointers
telling the system where everything is. For example, the first logical
address might point to physical memory for kernel space, while the
second logical address unit might point to user space in virtual memory
(similar to the example above). I imagine that's the whole value of
logical address space - it provides the HAL.
Any reference material or solid answers surrounding the mysteries of
Linux's memory allocation would be appreciated. :)